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S100B, established as prevalent protein of the central nervous system, is a peripheral biomarker for blood-brain barrier disruption and often also a marker of brain injury. However, reports of extracranial sources of S100B, especially from adipose tissue, may confound its interpretation in the clinical setting. The objective of this study was to(More)
Neurological diseases are often associated with cerebrovascular dysfunction and changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. This is important for two seemingly conflicting reasons. On the one hand, a leaky BBB may lead to brain disease by allowing extravasation of cells and molecules normally segregated in the periphery, while on the other hand an intact(More)
Status epilepticus (SE) is one of the most serious manifestations of epilepsy. Systemic inflammation and damage of blood-brain barrier (BBB) are etiologic cofactors in the pathogenesis of pilocarpine SE while acute osmotic disruption of the BBB is sufficient to elicit seizures. Whether an inflammatory-vascular-BBB mechanism could apply to the(More)
BACKGROUND Studies have shown that patients suffering from depression or schizophrenia often have immunological alterations that can be detected in the blood. Others reported a possible link between inflammation, a microgliosis and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in suicidal patients. Serum S100B is a marker of BBB function commonly used to study(More)
BACKGROUND Tumor burden can be pharmacologically controlled by inhibiting cell division and by direct, specific toxicity to the cancerous tissue. Unfortunately, tumors often develop intrinsic pharmacoresistance mediated by specialized drug extrusion mechanisms such as P-glycoprotein. As a consequence, malignant cells may become insensitive to various(More)
Massively parallel computing architectures are becoming widely accepted in many computationally intensive areas. One of the prime advantages touted is their scalability, and yet while in principle a good degree of scalability is possible, in practice the unit of scaling is very coarse. The net effect of this is to make incremental expansion of such machines(More)
When crystallization screening is conducted many outcomes are observed but typically the only trial recorded in the literature is the condition that yielded the crystal(s) used for subsequent diffraction studies. The initial hit that was optimized and the results of all the other trials are lost. These missing results contain information that would be(More)
PURPOSE Increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is radiologically detectable in regions affected by drug-resistant epileptogenic lesions. Brain penetration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may be affected by BBB damage. We studied the effects of BBB damage on brain distribution of hydrophilic [deoxy-glucose (DOG) and sucrose] and lipophilic (phenytoin(More)
Electric fields impact cellular functions by activation of ion channels or by interfering with cell membrane integrity. Ion channels can regulate cell cycle and play a role in tumorigenesis. While the cell cycle may be directly altered by ion fluxes, exposure to direct electric current of sufficient intensity may decrease tumor burden by generating chemical(More)
Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are one of the most common causes of neurological disabilities including autism and epilepsy. To disrupt cortical formation, methylazoxymethanol (MAM) or thalidomide (THAL) has been used to affect neurogenesis or vasculogenesis. Although previous models of MCD have been useful, these models primarily attack a(More)