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Microglia mediate multiple facets of neuroinflammation, including cytotoxicity, repair, regeneration, and immunosuppression due to their ability to acquire diverse activation states, or phenotypes. Modulation of microglial phenotype is an appealing neurotherapeutic strategy but a comprehensive study of classical and more novel microglial phenotypic markers(More)
In mammals, programmed cell death (PCD) is a central event during brain development. Trophic factors have been shown to prevent PCD in postmitotic neurons. Similarly, cytokines have neurotrophic effects involving regulation of neuronal survival. Nevertheless, neuronal PCD is only partially understood and host determinants are incompletely defined. The(More)
OBJECTIVE Vessels in brain arteriovenous malformations are prone to rupture. The underlying pathogenesis is not clear. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2 patients with activin receptor-like kinase 1 (Alk1) mutation have a higher incidence of brain arteriovenous malformation than the general population. We tested the hypothesis that vascular(More)
OBJECTIVE Activated microglia play a central role in the inflammatory and excitotoxic component of various acute and chronic neurological disorders. However, the mechanisms leading to their activation in the latter context are poorly understood, particularly the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), which are critical for excitotoxicity in(More)
Activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR) has a neuro-protective effect on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. However, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. We hypothesized that α-7 nAchR agonist protects brain injury after ischemic stroke through reduction of pro-inflammatory macrophages (M1) and oxidative stress.(More)
Once viewed as an isolated, immune-privileged organ, the central nervous system has undergone a conceptual change. Neuroinflammation has moved into the focus of research work regarding pathomechanisms underlying perinatal brain damage. In this review, we provide an overview of current concepts regarding perinatal brain damage and the role of inflammation in(More)
G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 2 (GRK2) regulates cellular signaling via desensitization of GPCRs and by direct interaction with intracellular signaling molecules. We recently described that ischemic brain injury decreases cerebral GRK2 levels. Here we studied the effect of astrocyte GRK2-deficiency on neonatal brain damage in vivo. As astrocytes(More)
Oligogenesis plays an important role in functional recovery after ischemic stroke. We tested the hypothesis that oligogenesis and the maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) vary in different brain regions using a rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model. Compared to Day 1, olig2(+) OPCs and oligodendrocytes (OLGs)(More)
OBJECTIVE The concept of inflammation-induced sensitization is emerging in the field of perinatal brain injury, stroke, Alzheimer disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, mechanisms underpinning this process remain unidentified. METHODS We combined in vivo systemic lipopolysaccharide-induced or interleukin (IL)-1β-induced sensitization of neonatal and(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is elevated in human brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVM). We have developed a bAVM model in the adult mouse by focal Alk1 gene deletion and human VEGF stimulation. We hypothesized that once the abnormal vasculature has been established, tonic VEGF stimulation is necessary to(More)