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Microglia mediate multiple facets of neuroinflammation, including cytotoxicity, repair, regeneration, and immunosuppression due to their ability to acquire diverse activation states, or phenotypes. Modulation of microglial phenotype is an appealing neurotherapeutic strategy but a comprehensive study of classical and more novel microglial phenotypic markers(More)
In mammals, programmed cell death (PCD) is a central event during brain development. Trophic factors have been shown to prevent PCD in postmitotic neurons. Similarly, cytokines have neurotrophic effects involving regulation of neuronal survival. Nevertheless, neuronal PCD is only partially understood and host determinants are incompletely defined. The(More)
OBJECTIVE Activated microglia play a central role in the inflammatory and excitotoxic component of various acute and chronic neurological disorders. However, the mechanisms leading to their activation in the latter context are poorly understood, particularly the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), which are critical for excitotoxicity in(More)
Once viewed as an isolated, immune-privileged organ, the central nervous system has undergone a conceptual change. Neuroinflammation has moved into the focus of research work regarding pathomechanisms underlying perinatal brain damage. In this review, we provide an overview of current concepts regarding perinatal brain damage and the role of inflammation in(More)
Activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR) has a neuro-protective effect on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. However, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. We hypothesized that α-7 nAchR agonist protects brain injury after ischemic stroke through reduction of pro-inflammatory macrophages (M1) and oxidative stress.(More)
Oligogenesis plays an important role in functional recovery after ischemic stroke. We tested the hypothesis that oligogenesis and the maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) vary in different brain regions using a rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model. Compared to Day 1, olig2(+) OPCs and oligodendrocytes (OLGs)(More)
Severe brain injuries, most often occurring in young subjects, are a major source of lost work years. These injuries are medical and surgical emergencies. Prehospital management of severe brain injuries requires intubation and mechanical ventilation aimed at normal arterial carbon dioxide pressure. Signs of transtentorial herniation: Uni- or bilateral(More)
OBJECTIVES Excitotoxicity plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain injuries. Among the consequences of excessive activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate are oxidative stress caused by free radical release from damaged mitochondria, neuronal death and subsequent loss of connectivity. Drugs that could protect(More)
The cognitive and behavioral deficits caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) to the immature brain are more severe and persistent than injuries to the adult brain. Understanding this developmental sensitivity is critical because children under 4 years of age of sustain TBI more frequently than any other age group. One of the first events after TBI is the(More)
BACKGROUND Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a prominent role in neuroprotection against perinatal brain injury. Dexmedetomidine, a selective agonist of α2-adrenergic receptors, also provides neuroprotection against glutamate-induced damage. Because adrenergic receptor agonists can modulate BDNF expression, our goal was to examine whether(More)