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Microglia mediate multiple facets of neuroinflammation, including cytotoxicity, repair, regeneration, and immunosuppression due to their ability to acquire diverse activation states, or phenotypes. Modulation of microglial phenotype is an appealing neurotherapeutic strategy but a comprehensive study of classical and more novel microglial phenotypic markers(More)
In mammals, programmed cell death (PCD) is a central event during brain development. Trophic factors have been shown to prevent PCD in postmitotic neurons. Similarly, cytokines have neurotrophic effects involving regulation of neuronal survival. Nevertheless, neuronal PCD is only partially understood and host determinants are incompletely defined. The(More)
OBJECTIVE Activated microglia play a central role in the inflammatory and excitotoxic component of various acute and chronic neurological disorders. However, the mechanisms leading to their activation in the latter context are poorly understood, particularly the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), which are critical for excitotoxicity in(More)
Activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR) has a neuro-protective effect on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. However, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. We hypothesized that α-7 nAchR agonist protects brain injury after ischemic stroke through reduction of pro-inflammatory macrophages (M1) and oxidative stress.(More)
Once viewed as an isolated, immune-privileged organ, the central nervous system has undergone a conceptual change. Neuroinflammation has moved into the focus of research work regarding pathomechanisms underlying perinatal brain damage. In this review, we provide an overview of current concepts regarding perinatal brain damage and the role of inflammation in(More)
G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 2 (GRK2) regulates cellular signaling via desensitization of GPCRs and by direct interaction with intracellular signaling molecules. We recently described that ischemic brain injury decreases cerebral GRK2 levels. Here we studied the effect of astrocyte GRK2-deficiency on neonatal brain damage in vivo. As astrocytes(More)
Oligogenesis plays an important role in functional recovery after ischemic stroke. We tested the hypothesis that oligogenesis and the maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) vary in different brain regions using a rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model. Compared to Day 1, olig2(+) OPCs and oligodendrocytes (OLGs)(More)
OBJECTIVES Excitotoxicity plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain injuries. Among the consequences of excessive activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate are oxidative stress caused by free radical release from damaged mitochondria, neuronal death and subsequent loss of connectivity. Drugs that could protect(More)
Bone fracture at the acute stage of stroke exacerbates stroke injury by increasing neuroinflammation. We hypothesize that activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR) attenuates neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, and reduces brain injury in mice with bone fracture and stroke. Permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) was(More)
The cognitive and behavioral deficits caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) to the immature brain are more severe and persistent than injuries to the adult brain. Understanding this developmental sensitivity is critical because children under 4 years of age of sustain TBI more frequently than any other age group. One of the first events after TBI is the(More)