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Worldwide, 100 million people are expected to die this century from the consequences of nicotine addiction, but nicotine is also known to enhance cognitive performance. Identifying the molecular mechanisms involved in nicotine reinforcement and cognition is a priority and requires the development of new in vivo experimental paradigms. The ventral tegmental(More)
Previous studies have reported intravenous cocaine self-administration behavior in several strains of mice with the exception of BALB/cByJ, a strain considered a mouse model of high emotional reactivity. The present experiments further investigated acquisition of self-administration in BALB/cByJ mice using a low dose and a habituation session. Following(More)
Rationale: The involvement of dopamine neurotransmission in opiate reward remains controversial. Objective: To investigate the dopaminergic basis of opiate reward by comparing the effect of systemic injection of the D2/D3 antagonist sulpiride on morphine self-administration (ICSA) into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or the nucleus accumbens (NAc) Methods:(More)
Chronic nicotine exposure results in long-term homeostatic regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that play a key role in the adaptative cellular processes leading to addiction. However, the relative contribution of the different nAChR subunits in this process is unclear. Using genetically modified mice and pharmacological manipulations,(More)
In order to study the functional role of the trans-synaptic neuronal interaction between glutamatergic afferents and mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons in internal reward processes, BALB/c male mice were unilaterally implanted with a guide-cannula, the tip of which was positioned 1.5 mm above the ventral tegmental area (VTA). On each day of the following(More)
BALB/c mice were unilaterally implanted with a guide cannula, the tip of which was positioned 1.5 mm above either the lateral hypothalamus (LH) the medial hypothalamus (MH), the mesencephalic central gray area (CG), or either the dorsal (DRF) or ventral parts (VRF) of the reticular formation. On each day of the experimental period a stainless steel(More)
Smoking is the most important preventable cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. This nicotine addiction is mediated through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), expressed on most neurons, and also many other organs in the body. Even within the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the key brain area responsible for the reinforcing properties of all(More)
The main focus of this paper is the problem of ensuring timeliness in safety critical systems. First, we introduce a method and its associated technique to model both real-time tasks and the timeliness ensuring concern when tasks are executed in parallel. This approach is based on formal aspects of our real-time tasks model and on the definition of the(More)
We used an intracranial self-administration (ICSA) procedure to assess the involvement of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) nicotinic receptors in the rewarding effects of nicotine. We then challenged intra-VTA nicotine self-administration via systemic or local injections of dopamine (DA)-D1 and nicotinic receptor antagonists. C57BL/6J mice were(More)
Nicotine is the primary psychoactive component of tobacco. Its reinforcing and addictive properties depend on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) located within the mesolimbic axis originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The roles and oligomeric assembly of subunit α4- and subunit α6-containing nAChRs in dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons are(More)