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Worldwide, 100 million people are expected to die this century from the consequences of nicotine addiction, but nicotine is also known to enhance cognitive performance. Identifying the molecular mechanisms involved in nicotine reinforcement and cognition is a priority and requires the development of new in vivo experimental paradigms. The ventral tegmental(More)
Nicotine is the primary psychoactive component of tobacco. Its reinforcing and addictive properties depend on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) located within the mesolimbic axis originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The roles and oligomeric assembly of subunit α4- and subunit α6-containing nAChRs in dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons are(More)
In order to study the functional role of the trans-synaptic neuronal interaction between glutamatergic afferents and mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons in internal reward processes, BALB/c male mice were unilaterally implanted with a guide-cannula, the tip of which was positioned 1.5 mm above the ventral tegmental area (VTA). On each day of the following(More)
Smoking is the most important preventable cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. This nicotine addiction is mediated through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), expressed on most neurons, and also many other organs in the body. Even within the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the key brain area responsible for the reinforcing properties of all(More)
Previous studies have reported intravenous cocaine self-administration behavior in several strains of mice with the exception of BALB/cByJ, a strain considered a mouse model of high emotional reactivity. The present experiments further investigated acquisition of self-administration in BALB/cByJ mice using a low dose and a habituation session. Following(More)
The main focus of this paper is the problem of ensuring timeliness in safety critical systems. First, we introduce a method and its associated technique to model both real-time tasks and the timeliness ensuring concern when tasks are executed in parallel. This approach is based on formal aspects of our real-time tasks model and on the definition of the(More)
Multiprocessor scheduling problems are hard because of the numerous constraints on valid schedules to take into account. This paper presents new schedule representations in order to overcome these difficulties, by allowing processors to be fractionally allocated. We prove that these representations are equivalent to the standard representations when(More)
BALB/c mice implanted with a bipolar electrode were trained in a shuttle-box to initiate and to terminate a continuous electrical stimulation applied in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) or in the mesencephalic central gray area (CG). Following stabilization of the baseline response latencies, the subjects were subcutaneously injected with isotonic NaCl or with(More)
RATIONALE The involvement of dopamine neurotransmission in opiate reward remains controversial. OBJECTIVE To investigate the dopaminergic basis of opiate reward by comparing the effect of systemic injection of the D2/D3 antagonist sulpiride on morphine self-administration (ICSA) into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or the nucleus accumbens (NAc) (More)
We used an intracranial self-administration (ICSA) procedure to assess the involvement of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) nicotinic receptors in the rewarding effects of nicotine. We then challenged intra-VTA nicotine self-administration via systemic or local injections of dopamine (DA)-D1 and nicotinic receptor antagonists. C57BL/6J mice were(More)