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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that can play crucial regulatory roles in eukaryotes by targeting mRNAs for silencing. To test whether miRNAs play roles in the regulation of wood development in tree species, we isolated small RNAs from the developing xylem of Populus trichocarpa stems and cloned 22 miRNAs. They are the founding members of 21(More)
Trees constitute the majority of lignocellulosic biomass existing on our planet. Trees also serve as important feedstock materials for various industrial products. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of cellulose synthase (CesA) genes of trees. Here, the cloning and characterization of three CesA genes (EgraCesA1, EgraCesA2, and(More)
OBJECTIVE Accurate outcome prediction after high-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage remains imprecise. Several clinical grading scales are in common use, but the timing of grading and changes in grade after admission have not been carefully evaluated. We hypothesized that these latter factors could have a significant impact on outcome prediction. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Stereotactic radiosurgery is known to control 85%-95% of intracranial metastatic lesions during a median survival of 6-8 months. However, with the advent of newer systemic cancer therapies, survival is improving; this change mandates a longitudinal quantitative analysis of the radiographic response of brain metastases to radiosurgery.(More)
Chemical imaging by confocal Raman microscopy has been used for the visualization of the cellulose and lignin distribution in wood cell walls. Lignin reduction in wood can be achieved by, for example, transgenic suppression of a monolignol biosynthesis gene encoding 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL). Here, we use confocal Raman microscopy to compare(More)
Construction and screening of DNA libraries for genes of interest represent the standard but tedious cloning procedures (1). The advent of PCR technology has greatly enhanced the efficiency of traditional gene isolation and cloning techniques. Various strategies have been developed for PCR amplification of an unknown DNA fragment that flanks one end of a(More)
Lignin content and composition are largely determined by the composition and quantity of the monolignol precursors. Individual enzymes of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway determine the composition and quantity of monolignols. Monolignol biosynthesis in angiosperms is mediated by ten enzyme families. We developed a method using a total protein extract(More)
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) catalyzes the initial step of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in plants. Five PAL genes (PtrPAL1 to 5) have been identified in Populus trichocarpa. These genes are classified into two subgroups according to their transcript sequence similarity and tissue specificity. However, the regulation of these genes and their protein(More)
The on-orbit radiometric response calibration of the VISible/Near InfraRed (VISNIR) and the ShortWave InfraRed (SWIR) bands of the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite is carried out through a Solar Diffuser (SD). The transmittance of the SD screen and the SD's Bidirectional(More)