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Representations of sensory stimuli in the cerebral cortex can undergo progressive remodelling according to the behavioural importance of the stimuli. The cortex receives widespread projections from dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which are activated by new stimuli or unpredicted rewards, and are believed to provide a reinforcement(More)
Temporal stimulus reinforcement sequences have been shown to determine the directions of synaptic plasticity and behavioral learning. Here, we examined whether they also control the direction of cortical reorganization. Pairing ventral tegmental area stimulation with a sound in a backward conditioning paradigm specifically reduced representations of the(More)
Cell-encapsulated hydrogels with complex three-dimensional (3D) structures were fabricated from photopolymerizable poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) using modified 'top-down' and 'bottoms-up' versions of a commercially available stereolithography apparatus (SLA). Swelling and mechanical properties were measured for PEGDA hydrogels with molecular(More)
In vitro models that recapitulate the liver's structural and functional complexity could prolong hepatocellular viability and function to improve platforms for drug toxicity studies and understanding liver pathophysiology. Here, stereolithography (SLA) was employed to fabricate hydrogel scaffolds with open channels designed for post-seeding and perfused(More)
The quest to 'forward-engineer' and fabricate biological machines remains a grand challenge. Towards this end, we have fabricated locomotive "bio-bots" from hydrogels and cardiomyocytes using a 3D printer. The multi-material bio-bot consisted of a 'biological bimorph' cantilever structure as the actuator to power the bio-bot, and a base structure to define(More)
Neovessels play a critical role in homeostasis, regeneration, and pathogenesis of tissues and organs, and their spatial organization is a major factor in influencing vascular function. [1,2] Therefore , successful treatments of wounds, ischemic tissue, and tissue defects greatly rely on the ability to control the number, size, spacing, and maturity of blood(More)
In this review, we summarize the recent developments in the emerging field of bioactuators across a multitude of length scales. First, we discuss the use and control of biomolecules as nanoscale actuators. Molecular motors, such as DNA, kinesin, myosin, and F1-ATPase, have been shown to exert forces in the range between 1 pN to 45 pN. Second, we discuss the(More)
Combining biological components, such as cells and tissues, with soft robotics can enable the fabrication of biological machines with the ability to sense, process signals, and produce force. An intuitive demonstration of a biological machine is one that can produce motion in response to controllable external signaling. Whereas cardiac cell-driven(More)
Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) is a highly sensitive quantitative phase imaging method, which is capable of unprecedented structure studies in biology and beyond. In addition to the π/2 shift introduced in phase contrast between the scattered and unscattered light from the sample, 4 phase shifts are generated in SLIM, by increments of π/2(More)
The stereolithography apparatus (SLA) is a computer-assisted, three-dimensional (3D) printing system that is gaining attention in the medical field for the fabrication of patient-specific prosthetics and implants. An attractive class of implantable biomaterials for the SLA is photopolymerisable hydrogels because of their resemblance to soft tissues and(More)