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Novel retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents (RAMBAs) have been synthesized and characterized. The synthetic features include introduction of nucleophilic ligands at C-4 of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and 13-cis-retinoic acid, and modification of terminal carboxylic acid group. Most of our compounds are powerful inhibitors of hamster liver microsomal(More)
Galantamine, a drug used to treat Alzheimer's disease, is a nicotinic allosteric potentiating ligand, and kynurenic acid (KYNA), a neuroactive metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, is an endogenous noncompetitive inhibitor of alpha7* nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) [the asterisk next to the nAChR subunit is intended to indicate that the exact subunit(More)
This study was carried out to determine the mechanisms associated with loss of androgen dependency and disease progression in prostate cancer. We investigated the role of the androgen receptor and its relationship to other signal transduction proteins. A hormone-refractory prostate cancer cell line [high-passage LNCaP (HP-LNCaP)] was established in vitro.(More)
The androgen receptor (AR) is essential for the growth of prostate cancer cells. Here, we report that tyrosine phosphorylation of AR is induced by growth factors and elevated in hormone-refractory prostate tumors. Mutation of the major tyrosine phosphorylation site in AR significantly inhibits the growth of prostate cancer cells under androgen-depleted(More)
The naturally occurring retinoids and their synthetic analogs play a key role in differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, and their use/potential in oncology, dermatology and a variety of diseases are well documented. This review focuses on the role of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), the principal endogenous metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) and its(More)
Selective aromatase inhibitors cause regression of breast carcinomas by reducing estrogen production via inhibition of the enzyme aromatase (estrogen synthetase). A higher incidence of hormone-dependent breast cancer occurs in postmenopausal women than in younger women. Thus, total estrogen blockade is more likely to be achieved with systemic(More)
Novel (+/-)-4-azolyl retinoic acid analogues 4, 5, 7 and 8 have been designed and synthesized and have been shown to be powerful inhibitors of hamster microsomal all-trans-retinoic acid 4-hydroxylase enzyme(s). (+/-)-4-(1H-Imidazol-1-yl)retinoic acid (4) is the most potent inhibitor of this enzyme reported to date.
VN/12-1 is a novel retinoic acid metabolism blocking agent discovered in our laboratory. The purpose of the study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism of anticancer activity of VN/12-1 in breast cancer cell lines and in tumor xenografts. We investigated the effects of VN/12-1 on induction of autophagy and apoptosis in SKBR-3 cells. Furthermore, we also(More)
New chemical entities, steroidal C-17 benzoazoles (5, 6, 9 and 10) and pyrazines (14 and 15) were rationally designed and synthesized. The key reaction for synthesis of the benzoazoles involved the nucleophilic vinylic "addition-elimination" substitution reaction of 3beta-acetoxy-17-chloro-16-formylandrosta-5,16-diene (2) and benzoazole nucleophiles, while(More)
It is almost 70 years since the discovery by Huggins et al. that androgens are essential for prostate cancer (PC) growth and progression, and there has been about 30 years experience using ketoconazole for PC therapy. Since then we have come a long way in learning about the disease and developing new strategies to approach it, among which is cytochrome(More)