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In 1998, Bender and Boettcher found that a wide class of Hamiltonians, even though non-Hermitian, can still exhibit entirely real spectra provided that they obey parity-time requirements or PT symmetry. Here we demonstrate experimentally passive PT-symmetry breaking within the realm of optics. This phase transition leads to a loss induced optical(More)
This paper presents work aimed at optimizing the fabrication of silicon nitride Si(x)N(y) thin-film visible-light planar waveguides using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The effects of plasma frequency, precursor gas ratio, and thermal annealing in relation to waveguide optical properties (refractive index, propagation losses) are(More)
Morphological changes occurring in individual cells largely influence the physiological functions of various cell layers. The control of barrier function of epithelia and endothelia is a prime example of processes highly dependent on cellular morphology and cell layer integrity. Here, we applied the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique to the(More)
Monte Carlo simulations have been widely used by microscopists for the last few decades. In the beginning it was a tedious and slow process, requiring a high level of computer skills from users and long computational times. Recent progress in the microelectronics industry now provides researchers with affordable desktop computers with clock rates greater(More)
We propose the combination of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) with living cells as a biosensing method. Our detection scheme is based on the premise that cellular activity induced by external agents is often associated with changes in cellular morphology, which in turn should lead to a variation of the effective refractive index at the interface between the(More)
We present a hybrid optical filter design that combines interference and absorbing components for enhanced fluorescence detection in miniaturized highly-integrated lab-on-a-chip devices. The filter is designed in such a way that the advantages of each technology are used to offset the disadvantages of the other. The filter is fabricated with(More)
Discrete spatial solitons traveling along the interface between two dissimilar one-dimensional arrays of waveguides were observed for the first time. Two interface solitons were found theoretically, each one with a peak in a different boundary channel. One evolves into a soliton from a linear mode at an array separation larger than a critical separation(More)
This paper presents a buried quad p-n junction (BQJ) photodetector fabricated with a HV (high-voltage) CMOS process. Multiple buried junction photodetectors are wavelength-sensitive devices developed for spectral analysis applications where a compact integrated solution is preferred over systems involving bulk optics or a spectrometer due to physical size(More)