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We review here the possible mechanisms of neuronal degeneration caused by L-cysteine, an odd excitotoxin. L-Cysteine lacks the omega carboxyl group required for excitotoxic actions via excitatory amino acid receptors, yet it evokes N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) -like excitotoxic neuronal death and potentiates the Ca2+ influx evoked by NMDA. Both actions are(More)
An immune serum directed against the purified form of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase from rat kidney cross-reacts with brain extract. An immunohistological study in rat cerebellum showed that the endothelial cells of blood vessels are heavily stained for the enzyme. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed high concentration of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase on the(More)
In addition to its well-known antioxidant effects, glutathione apparently has an additional double role in the central nervous system as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. A number of recent neurochemical, neuropharmacological and electrophysiological studies have yielded evidence on both functions. As an excitatory neurotransmitter, glutathione(More)
A recognition site for benzodiazepines structurally different from that linked to the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subtype A or the "central type" benzodiazepine receptor has been located mainly in the outer membranes of mitochondria and designated mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor (MBR). A putative endogenous ligand for MBR is the peptide, diazepam(More)
The presynaptic regulation of striatal glutamate transmission was investigated using D-[3H]aspartate and mouse striatal slices. Functional changes in voltage-dependent and glutamate receptor-gated ion channels were elicited by pharmacologically modifying intracellular cyclic AMP formation via G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation. The kainate (KA)-evoked(More)
The Na+-independent binding of L-[3H]cysteine sulfinate and L-[3H]cysteine sulfinate uptake were investigated in rat brain membranes and vesicles. Specific binding of L-[3H]cysteine sulfinate was saturable and occurred by a single high affinity process with a Kb of 100 nM +/- 9 and a capacity (Bmax) of 2.4 +/- 0.22 pmol/mg protein. Sodium ions were found to(More)
Nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry has been applied in the present study to determine the distribution of putative nitric oxide (nitric oxide synthase)-producing cells during embryonic and early postembryonic development in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis L., with special reference to the nervous system. The(More)
The effects of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione and dithiothreitol (DTT) and L-cysteine on the influx of 45Ca2+ were studied with cultured cerebellar granule cells. DTT slightly enhanced the basal influx but strongly activated the influx stimulated by glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). The effects on the kainate- or quisqualate-induced(More)
The effects of lamotrigine and carbamazepine on the release of preloaded D-[3H]aspartate and the involvement of nitric oxide were studied with mouse cerebral cortical slices in a superfusion system. Lamotrigine inhibited the veratridine-evoked release, whereas the K+-stimulated release was attenuated more strongly by carbamazepine than by lamotrigine. These(More)