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This is the first of 2 articles that summarize the findings of the International Consensus Panel on cytology and bladder tumor markers. The objectives of our panel were to reach a consensus on the areas where markers are needed, to define the attributes of an ideal tumor marker, and to identify which marker(s) would be suitable for diagnosis and/or(More)
PURPOSE We reviewed currently available bladder cancer tests in the context of the clinical expectations of a noninvasive bladder cancer test. MATERIALS AND METHODS We reviewed the literature on bladder cancer tests that are commercially available or have shown clinical usefulness and examined how each test compares with standard methods of bladder cancer(More)
GP85 is one of the most common hemopoietic isoforms of the cell adhesion molecule, CD44. CD44(GP85) is known to contain at least one ankyrin-binding site within its 70 aa cytoplasmic domain and to bind hyaluronic acid (HA) with its extracellular domain. In this study we have mapped the ankyrin-binding domain of CD44(GP85) by deleting various portions of the(More)
Hyaluronidases degrade hyaluronic acid, which promotes metastasis. HYAL1 type hyaluronidase is an independent prognostic indicator of prostate cancer progression and a biomarker for bladder cancer. However, it is controversial whether hyaluronidase (e.g., HYAL1) functions as a tumor promoter or as a suppressor. We stably transfected prostate cancer cells,(More)
Hyaluronic acid (HA), a glycosaminoglycan, regulates cell adhesion and migration. Hyaluronidase (HAase), an endoglycosidase, degrades HA into small angiogenic fragments. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-like assay, we found increased HA levels (3-8-fold) in prostate cancer (CaP) tissues when compared with normal (NAP) and benign (BPH) tissues. The(More)
PURPOSE Urologists frequently rely on symptom and problem indexes to monitor patients with interstitial cystitis (IC). Uronic acid is a component of most glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which is a protective bladder urothelium coating. We evaluated whether urinary uronate and sulfated GAG levels correlate with IC severity and we characterized urinary GAG(More)
PURPOSE Specific patterns of progression and frequent recurrence of bladder tumors determine the choice of treatment, frequency of surveillance, quality of life, and ultimately, patient prognosis. The prognosis would be improved if an accurate noninvasive test was available for diagnosis. Identification of markers that function in bladder cancer progression(More)
The International Consensus Panel on cytology and bladder tumor markers evaluated markers that have the ability to predict tumor recurrence, progression, development of metastases, or response to therapy or patient survival. This article summarizes those findings. The panel mainly reviewed articles listed in PubMed on various prognostic indicators for(More)
Hyaluronic acid (HA), a glycosaminoglycan, is known to promote tumor cell adhesion and migration, and its small fragments stimulate angiogenesis. We compared levels of HA in the urine of normal individuals and patients with bladder cancer or other genitourinary conditions, using a sensitive ELISA-like assay. Among the 144 specimens analyzed, the urinary HA(More)
Hyaluronic acid (HA), a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan, regulates cell adhesion and migration. Small HA fragments (3-25 disaccharide units) induce neovascularization. We investigated the effect of HA and a HA fragment (10-15 disaccharide units, F1) on primary human endothelial cells (ECs). Human pulmonary ECs (HPAEC) and lung microvessel ECs (HMVEC-L) bound(More)