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1. Kynurenine aminotransferase catalyzes the conversion of kynurenine to kynurenic acid, an endogenous antagonist of excitatory amino acid receptors. The kynurenic acid content and kynurenine aminotransferase activity was measured in micro-dissected regions of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and their normotensive controls (Wistar-Kyoto rats: WKY). 2.(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) coexists with noradrenaline in postganglionic sympathetic neurons. In order to test the hypothesis that NPY may be released along with catecholamines by activation of the sympathoadrenal system we measured plasma NPY-like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI) concentrations during cold pressor test, head up tilt and bicycle exercise in healthy(More)
The kynurenine pathway is a major route of L-tryptophan catabolism producing neuroactive metabolites implicated in neurodegeneration and immune tolerance. We characterized the kynurenine pathway in human neurons and the human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell line and found that the kynurenine pathway enzymes were variably expressed. Picolinic carboxylase was(More)
Preliminary investigations, studying gene expression and biochemical activities of enzymes d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) and kynurenine aminotransferase-1 (KAT-1), revealed elevated cerebellar KAT-1 and DAAO activities in post-mortem brain samples from schizophrenic versus normal individuals. In addition, we have identified a transcript of DAAO, which was(More)
Changes in dopamine (DA) release were measured in microdialysis samples taken from the nucleus accumbens (NAC) of rats pretreated with the DA uptake inhibitor, nomifensine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) during self- or forced stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). Self-stimulation of the MFB in nomifensine-pretreated rats caused an increased release of DA in(More)
The basal overflow of extracellular endogenous amino acids was measured from the ventrolateral medulla of urethane anaesthetized rats in vivo by microdialysis. Inclusion of a mercury salt, p-chloromercuriphenylsulphonic acid, in the dialysate (Krebs' solution), results in a preferential increase in the overflow of aspartate, glutamate, glycine and GABA. A(More)
In the mammalian brain, kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) is pivotal to the synthesis of kynurenic acid, a preferential antagonist at the strychnine-insensitive NMDA-glycine site. As NMDA receptors are involved in autonomic function, we have examined the immunohistochemical localization of KAT in the medulla and spinal cord of the rat. KAT immunoreactivity(More)
This paper reviews the role of central serotonin-containing neurons in the control of blood pressure. Central serotonin nerves have their cell bodies in the brainstem in a number of discrete collections, from where they ascend to ramify throughout the brain, descend to terminate in the spinal cord, or send shorter projections terminating in medulla, pons,(More)
The activity and regional distribution of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), an enzyme that inactivates D-serine, were examined in the medulla and spinal cord of the rat by biochemical and histochemical procedures. DAO activity was noticeably low or absent in the nucleus of the solitary tract, ventrolateral medulla and intramediolateral cell column of the spinal(More)
Phosphate activated glutaminase (PAG), an enzyme of glutamate synthesis, was localized by immunohistochemistry in all PNMT-immunoreactive and all serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the rostral ventral medulla of the rat. Between 71 and 83% of bulbospinal neurons localised in the rostral ventral medulla projecting to the intermediolateral cell column in the(More)