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the presence of high concentrations of LDL (Brown and Goldstein, 1983). It is now clear that uptake of LDL by foam cells is mediated by a group of cell surface proteins termed scavenger receptors. Brown and Goldstein and * The Salk Institute for Biological Studies colleagues were the first to demonstrate that these re-† Howard Hughes Medical Institute(More)
The formation of foam cells from macrophages in the arterial wall is characterized by dramatic changes in lipid metabolism, including increased expression of scavenger receptors and the uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). We demonstrate here that the nuclear receptor PPARgamma is induced in human monocytes following exposure to oxLDL and is(More)
One of several postulated roles for tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is the stabilization and assembly of extracellular matrix via peptide cross-linking. We previously determined that tTG activity increased in an animal model of hepatic fibrogenesis and in human liver disease. To further study the role of tTG in liver disease, we initiated investigations into(More)
Transglutaminases form a family of proteins that have evolved for specialized functions such as protein crosslinking in haemostasis, semen coagulation, or keratinocyte cornified envelope formation. In contrast to the other members of this protein family, tissue transglutaminase is a multifunctional enzyme apparently involved in very disparate biological(More)
Tissue transglutaminase is a cytosolic enzyme whose primary function is to catalyze the covalent cross-linking of proteins. To investigate the functions of this enzyme in physiological systems, we have established lines of Balb-C 3T3 fibroblasts stably transfected with a constitutive tissue transglutaminase expression plasmid. Several cell lines expressing(More)
We previously reported that mice lacking the RARgamma gene and one or both alleles of the RARbeta gene (i.e., RARbeta+/-/RARgamma-/- and RARbeta-/-/RARgamma-/- mutants) display a severe and fully penetrant interdigital webbing (soft tissue syndactyly), caused by the persistence of the fetal interdigital mesenchyme (Ghyselinck et al., 1997, Int. J. Dev.(More)
OBJECTIVE We present the first characterization of the cytokine expression pattern of lymph node fibroblastic reticulum cells (FRC), which are the stromal cells responsible for maintaining the highly structured nodal reticular fiber framework. METHODS Microarray expression profiles of cultured nodal FRC and dermal fibroblasts (DF) were compared as well as(More)
A high-fat diet increases the risk of colon, breast and prostate cancer. The molecular mechanism by which dietary lipids promote tumorigenesis is unknown. Their effects may be mediated at least in part by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). These ligand-activated nuclear receptors modulate gene expression in response to fatty acids,(More)
Retinoids induce myeloblastic leukemia (HL-60) cells to differentiate into granulocytes, which subsequently die by apoptosis. Retinoid action is mediated through at least two classes of nuclear receptors: retinoic acid receptors, which bind both all-trans retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid, and retinoid X receptors, which bind only 9-cis retinoic acid.(More)
During the involution of lead nitrate-induced hyperplasia in rat liver a significant increase of transglutaminase activity, enzyme concentration, transglutaminase messenger RNA and protein-bound epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine (product of transglutaminase action) coincided with programmed death (apoptosis) of hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical examination(More)