Villi S. Toddywalla

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The antibiotic nitrofurantoin is transported against an electrochemical gradient into milk. A monolayer of CIT3 cells, a subline of the Comma 1D normal mouse mammary epithelial cell line, transports [14C]-nitrofurantoin against a concentration gradient from the basal to the apical solution when grown on membrane filters. In a side-by-side diffusion chamber(More)
OBJECTIVE Levonorgestrel (LNG), a low-dose progestin, does not affect lactation but like all drugs taken by breastfeeding mothers, it can be transferred to the infant via breast milk. How infants of various ages cope with this unwanted maternal drug would help in deciding when to recommend this method of contraception to breastfeeding mothers. METHODS The(More)
This study was carried out to investigate whether minute quantities of maternal drugs ingested over an extended period of time by a breast-feeding infant can alter the activity pattern of the infant's hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme (HDME). The HDME activity patterns of 12 breast-fed infants whose mothers were not on drug therapy were compared with those(More)
A sensitive and specific, enzyme labelled immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 6 beta-hydroxycortisol in diluted urine using penicillinase was developed. 6 beta-Hydroxycortisol-21-hemisuccinate was conjugated with enzyme penicillinase. Antibody immobilized on a polyvinylchloride ELISA plate (Dynatech) was used for separation of bound from free ligand. The(More)
A study was conducted on four alternate days over an eight-day period in a group of 12 healthy, 20-35 year old exclusively breast feeding women who were interested in weaning their infants. On each study day the women ingested 150 micrograms levonorgestrel. Maternal blood and milk samples were collected at 2, 4, 6, and 8 hr intervals after LNG ingestion on(More)
A study was conducted to compare the biological activity of the estrogenic component of the endogenous steroids in breast milk samples collected during various phases of lactation with those milk samples collected from women who were on estrogen therapy. The estrogenic biological activity in the milk sample was assessed by the immature mouse uterine weight(More)
A single tablet of either of the three different types of oral contraceptive preparations, viz. "Gynovlar" containing 3000 micrograms norethisterone (NET) and 50 micrograms ethinyl estradiol (EE2) or "Ovral" containing 250 micrograms levonorgestrel (LNG) and 50 micrograms EE2, or a daily progestogen only type--"Minipill" containing 30 micrograms of LNG(More)
Four consecutive menstrual cycles were studied in six healthy parous women. A solvent mixture comprising propylene glycol:ethanol:water (3:3:4) was sprayed intranasally daily using a glass atomizer between days 5 and 24 of the first (control) menstrual cycle. NET was dissolved in the solvent and similarly administered at a daily dose of 100 mcg during the(More)