Villem Aruoja

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Toxicities of ZnO, TiO2 and CuO nanoparticles to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were determined using OECD 201 algal growth inhibition test taking in account potential shading of light. The results showed that the shading effect by nanoparticles was negligible. ZnO nanoparticles were most toxic followed by nano CuO and nano TiO2. The toxicities of bulk and(More)
Silver, ZnO and CuO nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used as biocides. There is however increasing evidence of their threat to "non-target" organisms. In such a context, the understanding of the toxicity mechanisms is crucial for both the design of more efficient nano-antimicrobials, i.e. for "toxic by design" and at the same time for the design of(More)
A small-scale Selenastrum capricornutum (Rhapidocelis subcapitata) growth inhibition assay was applied to the toxicity testing of suspensions of heavy-metal-polluted soils. The OECD 201 standard test procedure was followed, and algal biomass was measured by the fluorescence of extracted chlorophyll. The soils, which contained up to (per kilogram) 1390 mg of(More)
In this paper a set of homogenous experimental algal toxicity data was measured for 50 non-polar narcotic chemicals using the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata in a closed test with a growth rate endpoint. Most of the tested compounds are high volume industrial chemicals that so far lacked published REACH-compliant algal growth inhibition values. The(More)
The concept of nanotechnologies is based on size-dependent properties of particles in the 1-100 nm range. However, the relation between the particle size and biological effects is still unclear. The aim of the current paper was to generate and analyse a homogenous set of experimental toxicity data on Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of similar coating (citrate)(More)
A congeneric set of 58 substituted anilines and phenols was tested using the 72-h algal growth inhibition assay with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and 15-min Vibrio fischeri luminescence inhibition assay. The set contained molecules substituted with one, two or three groups chosen from -chloro, -methyl or -ethyl. For 48 compounds there was no(More)
Within the FP7 EU project NanoValid a consortium of six partners jointly investigated the hazard of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) paying special attention to methodical aspects that are important for providing high-quality ecotoxicity data. Laboratories were supplied with the same original stock dispersion of AgNPs. All partners applied a harmonised(More)
Toxicity testing of nanomaterials (NMs) is experimentally challenging because NMs may interfere with test environment and assay components. In this work we propose a simple and reliable method--a 'spot test' to compare biocidal potency of NMs to unicellular microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts and algae. The assay is straightforward: cells are incubated(More)
The combined chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of oil shale combustion fly ash was performed. Ash was sampled from the most distant point of the ash-separation systems of the Balti and Eesti Thermal Power Plants in North-Eastern Estonia. The fly ash proved potentially hazardous for tested aquatic organisms and high alkalinity of the leachates(More)
Use of rare earth elements (REEs) has increased rapidly in recent decades due to technological advances. It has been accompanied by recurring rare earth element anomalies in water bodies. In this work we (i) studied the effects of eight novel doped and one non-doped rare earth oxide (REO) particles (aimed to be used in solid oxide fuel cells and gas(More)