Ville Virkkunen

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In this study, solid state (13)C NMR spectroscopy was utilised to characterize and identify the metal-ester coordination in active fourth generation (phthalate) Ziegler-Natta catalysts. It is known that different donors affect the active species in ZN catalysts. However, there is still limited data available of detailed molecular information how the donors(More)
Ziegler-Natta polymerization catalysts were characterized by a complex of surface- and bulk-sensitive methods (DRIFTS, XPS, ESR, and XAS = XANES + EXAFS). A diffuse-reflectance Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) study showed the presence of strong Lewis acid sites in different concentrations and absence of strong basic sites in the polymerization(More)
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