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Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important health problem worldwide, with many millions of cases each year, and Escherichia coli is the most common organism causing UTI in humans. Also, E. coli is responsible for most infections in patients with chronic indwelling bladder catheter. The two asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) E. coli strains 83972 and VR50 are(More)
Many bacterial infections are associated with biofilm formation. Bacterial biofilms can develop on essentially all kinds of surfaces, producing chronic and often intractable infections. Escherichia coli is an important pathogen causing a wide range of gastrointestinal infections. E. coli strain Nissle 1917 has been used for many decades as a probiotic(More)
A number of potential substrates for the microsomal glutathione transferase have been investigated. Out of 11 epoxides tested, only two, i.e. androstenoxide and benzo(a)pyrene-4,5-oxide, were found to be substrates. Upon treatment of the enzyme with N-ethylmaleimide, its activity toward only certain substrates is increased. It appeared upon inspection of(More)
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) represent an important subclass of E. coli that cause a wide spectrum of diseases in human and animal hosts. Fimbriae are key virulence factors of ExPEC strains. These long surface located rod-shaped organelles mediate receptor-specific attachment to host tissue surfaces (tissue tropism). Some ExPEC(More)
Escherichia coli is a highly versatile species encompassing a diverse spectrum of strains, i.e. from highly virulent isolates causing serious infectious diseases to commensals and probiotic strains. Although much is known about bacterial pathogenicity in E. coli, the understanding of which genetic determinants differentiates a virulent from an avirulent(More)
Biofilm formation is involved in the majority of bacterial infections. Comparing six Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates revealed significant differences in biofilm formation depending on the growth medium. Fimbriae are known to be involved in biofilm formation, and type 1, F1C and P fimbriae were seen to influence biofilm formation(More)
Variegate porphyria is an autosomal dominant disorder of haem metabolism resulting from a partial decrease in protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity. Variegate porphyria is highly prevalent in South Africa, the result of a founder effect now confirmed genetically as a single point mutation (R59W) which has been described in nearly all South African variegate(More)
Bacterial biofilms are associated with a large number of persistent and chronic infections. Biofilm-dwelling bacteria are particularly resistant to antibiotics and immune defenses, which makes it hard if not impossible to eradicate biofilm-associated infections. In the urinary tract, free iron is strictly limited but is critical for bacterial growth.(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is used to describe a state of idiopathic, chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The two main phenotypes of IBD are Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The major cause of IBD-associated mortality is colorectal cancer. Although both host-genetic and exogenous factors have been found to(More)
Bacterial biofilms cause numerous problems in health care and industry; notably, biofilms are associated with a large number of infections. Biofilm-dwelling bacteria are particularly resistant to antibiotics, making it hard to eradicate biofilm-associated infections. Bacteria rely on efflux pumps to get rid of toxic substances. We discovered that efflux(More)