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Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important health problem worldwide, with many millions of cases each year, and Escherichia coli is the most common organism causing UTI in humans. Also, E. coli is responsible for most infections in patients with chronic indwelling bladder catheter. The two asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) E. coli strains 83972 and VR50 are(More)
Many bacterial infections are associated with biofilm formation. Bacterial biofilms can develop on essentially all kinds of surfaces, producing chronic and often intractable infections. Escherichia coli is an important pathogen causing a wide range of gastrointestinal infections. E. coli strain Nissle 1917 has been used for many decades as a probiotic(More)
Pneumocystis carinii trophozoites grow in vivo in close contact with host cells. The attachment of Pneumocystis to the lung cells seems to be a critical step in the parasite's development. Up to now, the contact of Pneumocystis with mammalian tissue culture cells was shown using light and scanning electron microscopy. The methods are not sufficient to(More)
A number of potential substrates for the microsomal glutathione transferase have been investigated. Out of 11 epoxides tested, only two, i.e. androstenoxide and benzo(a)pyrene-4,5-oxide, were found to be substrates. Upon treatment of the enzyme with N-ethylmaleimide, its activity toward only certain substrates is increased. It appeared upon inspection of(More)
Biofilm formation is involved in the majority of bacterial infections. Comparing six Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates revealed significant differences in biofilm formation depending on the growth medium. Fimbriae are known to be involved in biofilm formation, and type 1, F1C and P fimbriae were seen to influence biofilm formation(More)
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) represent an important subclass of E. coli that cause a wide spectrum of diseases in human and animal hosts. Fimbriae are key virulence factors of ExPEC strains. These long surface located rod-shaped organelles mediate receptor-specific attachment to host tissue surfaces (tissue tropism). Some ExPEC(More)
Bacterial biofilms are associated with a large number of persistent and chronic infections. Biofilm-dwelling bacteria are particularly resistant to antibiotics and immune defenses, which makes it hard if not impossible to eradicate biofilm-associated infections. In the urinary tract, free iron is strictly limited but is critical for bacterial growth.(More)
Bacterial biofilms cause numerous problems in health care and industry; notably, biofilms are associated with a large number of infections. Biofilm-dwelling bacteria are particularly resistant to antibiotics, making it hard to eradicate biofilm-associated infections. Bacteria rely on efflux pumps to get rid of toxic substances. We discovered that efflux(More)
Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the rising frequency of strains that are resistant to many current antibiotics. New types of antibiotics are, therefore, urgently needed. Virulence factors or virulence-associated phenotypes such as adhesins and biofilm formation are highly attractive targets for new drugs.(More)
Mucosal surfaces in the intestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts are populated by a highly diverse bacterial flora. Most host-dwelling bacteria are commensals and maintain a symbiotic relationship with the host; however, a minority are pathogens that attack the mucosa, causing tissue damage and disease symptoms. Bacterial pathogens differ from(More)