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Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) play key roles in intra- and extracellular signaling in eukaryotes. Here we report that the MAPKKK MEKK1 regulates redox homeostasis in Arabidopsis. We show that MEKK1-deficient plants are misregulated in the expression of a number of genes involved in cellular redox control and accumulate reactive(More)
Root hairs are cellular protuberances extending from the root surface into the soil; there they provide access to immobile inorganic ions such as phosphate, which are essential for growth. Their cylindrical shape results from a polarized mechanism of cell expansion called tip growth in which elongation is restricted to a small area at the surface of the(More)
In plants, exocytosis is a central mechanism of cell morphogenesis. We still know surprisingly little about some aspects of this process, starting with exocytotic vesicle formation, which may take place at the trans-Golgi network even without coat assistance, facilitated by the local regulation of membrane lipid organization. The RabA4b guanosine(More)
BACKGROUND Involvement of conservative molecular modules and cellular mechanisms in the widely diversified processes of eukaryotic cell morphogenesis leads to the intriguing question: how do similar proteins contribute to dissimilar morphogenetic outputs. Formins (FH2 proteins) play a central part in the control of actin organization and dynamics, providing(More)
BACKGROUND Shuffling of modular protein domains is an important source of evolutionary innovation. Formins are a family of actin-organizing proteins that share a conserved FH2 domain but their overall domain architecture differs dramatically between opisthokonts (metazoans and fungi) and plants. We performed a phylogenomic analysis of formins in most(More)
The exocyst, an octameric tethering complex and effector of Rho and Rab GTPases, facilitates polarized secretion in yeast and animals. Recent evidence implicates three plant homologs of exocyst subunits (SEC3, SEC8, and EXO70A1) in plant cell morphogenesis. Here, we provide genetic, cell biological, and biochemical evidence that these and other predicted(More)
Exocyst is an evolutionarily conserved vesicle tethering complex functioning especially in the last stage of exocytosis. Homologs of its eight canonical subunits - Sec3, Sec5, Sec6, Sec8, Sec10, Sec15, Exo70, and Exo84 - were found also in higher plants and confirmed to form complexes in vivo, and to participate in cell growth including polarized expansion(More)
Recently, the octameric vesicle-tethering complex exocyst was found in plants and its importance for Arabidopsis morphogenesis was demonstrated. Exo70 exocyst subunits in plants, unlike in yeasts and mammals, are represented by a multigene family, comprising 23 members in Arabidopsis. For Exo70B2 and Exo70H1 paralogues, transcriptional up-regulation was(More)
BACKGROUND The phospholipase D (PLD) family has been identified in plants by recent molecular studies, fostered by the emerging importance of plant PLDs in stress physiology and signal transduction. However, the presence of multiple isoforms limits the power of conventional biochemical and pharmacological approaches, and calls for a wider application of(More)
The exocyst complex, an effector of Rho and Rab GTPases, is believed to function as an exocytotic vesicle tether at the plasma membrane before soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex formation. Exocyst subunits localize to secretory-active regions of the plasma membrane, exemplified by the outer domain of(More)