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Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) play key roles in intra- and extracellular signaling in eukaryotes. Here we report that the MAPKKK MEKK1 regulates redox homeostasis in Arabidopsis. We show that MEKK1-deficient plants are misregulated in the expression of a number of genes involved in cellular redox control and accumulate reactive(More)
The exocyst is a hetero-oligomeric protein complex involved in exocytosis and has been extensively studied in yeast and animal cells. Evidence is now accumulating that the exocyst is also present in plants. Bioinformatic analysis of genes encoding plant homologs of the exocyst subunit, Exo70, revealed that three Exo70 subgroups are evolutionarily conserved(More)
Root hairs are cellular protuberances extending from the root surface into the soil; there they provide access to immobile inorganic ions such as phosphate, which are essential for growth. Their cylindrical shape results from a polarized mechanism of cell expansion called tip growth in which elongation is restricted to a small area at the surface of the(More)
In plants, exocytosis is a central mechanism of cell morphogenesis. We still know surprisingly little about some aspects of this process, starting with exocytotic vesicle formation, which may take place at the trans-Golgi network even without coat assistance, facilitated by the local regulation of membrane lipid organization. The RabA4b guanosine(More)
Autophagic transport to the vacuole represents an endomembrane trafficking route, which is widely used in plants, not only during stress situations, but also for vacuole biogenesis and during developmental processes. Here we report a role in autophagic membrane transport for EXO70B1--one of 23 paralogs of Arabidopsis EXO70 exocyst subunits. EXO70B1 positive(More)
BACKGROUND Involvement of conservative molecular modules and cellular mechanisms in the widely diversified processes of eukaryotic cell morphogenesis leads to the intriguing question: how do similar proteins contribute to dissimilar morphogenetic outputs. Formins (FH2 proteins) play a central part in the control of actin organization and dynamics, providing(More)
Tip-localized reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected in growing pollen tubes by chloromethyl dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate oxidation, while tip-localized extracellular superoxide production was detected by nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction. To investigate the origin of the ROS we cloned a fragment of pollen specific tobacco NADPH oxidase(More)
The dynamic behaviour of the actin cytoskeleton in plants relies on the coordinated action of several classes of actin-binding proteins (ABPs). These ABPs include the plant-specific subfamilies of actin-nucleating formin proteins. The model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana has over 20 formin proteins, all of which contain plant-specific regions in place(More)
BACKGROUND Shuffling of modular protein domains is an important source of evolutionary innovation. Formins are a family of actin-organizing proteins that share a conserved FH2 domain but their overall domain architecture differs dramatically between opisthokonts (metazoans and fungi) and plants. We performed a phylogenomic analysis of formins in most(More)
Phospholipase D (PLD) and its product phosphatidic acid (PA) are involved in a number of signalling pathways regulating cell proliferation, membrane vesicle trafficking and defence responses in eukaryotic cells. Here we report that PLD and PA have a role in the process of polarised plant cell expansion as represented by pollen tube growth. Both(More)