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The vomeronasal organ (VNO) has a key role in mediating the social and defensive responses of many terrestrial vertebrates to species- and sex-specific chemosignals. More than 250 putative pheromone receptors have been identified in the mouse VNO, but the nature of the signals detected by individual VNO receptors has not yet been elucidated. To gain insight(More)
All-optical electrophysiology-spatially resolved simultaneous optical perturbation and measurement of membrane voltage-would open new vistas in neuroscience research. We evolved two archaerhodopsin-based voltage indicators, QuasAr1 and QuasAr2, which show improved brightness and voltage sensitivity, have microsecond response times and produce no(More)
Lateral inhibition is a circuit motif found throughout the nervous system that often generates contrast enhancement and center-surround receptive fields. We investigated the functional properties of the circuits mediating lateral inhibition between olfactory bulb principal neurons (mitral cells) in vitro. We found that the lateral inhibition received by(More)
Reliable, stimulus-specific temporal patterns of action potentials have been proposed to encode information in many brain areas, perhaps most notably in the olfactory system. Analysis of such temporal coding has focused almost exclusively on excitatory neurons. Thus, the role of networks of inhibitory interneurons in establishing and maintaining this(More)
1. Kynurenine aminotransferase catalyzes the conversion of kynurenine to kynurenic acid, an endogenous antagonist of excitatory amino acid receptors. The kynurenic acid content and kynurenine aminotransferase activity was measured in micro-dissected regions of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and their normotensive controls (Wistar-Kyoto rats: WKY). 2.(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) coexists with noradrenaline in postganglionic sympathetic neurons. In order to test the hypothesis that NPY may be released along with catecholamines by activation of the sympathoadrenal system we measured plasma NPY-like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI) concentrations during cold pressor test, head up tilt and bicycle exercise in healthy(More)
Changes in dopamine (DA) release were measured in microdialysis samples taken from the nucleus accumbens (NAC) of rats pretreated with the DA uptake inhibitor, nomifensine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) during self- or forced stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). Self-stimulation of the MFB in nomifensine-pretreated rats caused an increased release of DA in(More)
The basal overflow of extracellular endogenous amino acids was measured from the ventrolateral medulla of urethane anaesthetized rats in vivo by microdialysis. Inclusion of a mercury salt, p-chloromercuriphenylsulphonic acid, in the dialysate (Krebs' solution), results in a preferential increase in the overflow of aspartate, glutamate, glycine and GABA. A(More)
In the mammalian brain, kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) is pivotal to the synthesis of kynurenic acid, a preferential antagonist at the strychnine-insensitive NMDA-glycine site. As NMDA receptors are involved in autonomic function, we have examined the immunohistochemical localization of KAT in the medulla and spinal cord of the rat. KAT immunoreactivity(More)
This paper reviews the role of central serotonin-containing neurons in the control of blood pressure. Central serotonin nerves have their cell bodies in the brainstem in a number of discrete collections, from where they ascend to ramify throughout the brain, descend to terminate in the spinal cord, or send shorter projections terminating in medulla, pons,(More)