Vikram Pattanayak

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The RNA-programmable Cas9 endonuclease cleaves double-stranded DNA at sites complementary to a 20-base-pair guide RNA. The Cas9 system has been used to modify genomes in multiple cells and organisms, demonstrating its potential as a facile genome-engineering tool. We used in vitro selection and high-throughput sequencing to determine the propensity of eight(More)
CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are widely used for genome editing but can induce unwanted off-target mutations. Existing strategies for reducing genome-wide off-target effects of the widely used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) are imperfect, possessing only partial or unproven efficacies and other limitations that constrain their use. Here we describe(More)
Although transcription activator–like effector nucleases (TALENs) can be designed to cleave chosen DNA sequences, TALENs have activity against related off-target sequences. To better understand TALEN specificity, we profiled 30 unique TALENs with different target sites, array length and domain sequences for their abilities to cleave any of 1012 potential(More)
Engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are promising tools for genome manipulation, and determining off-target cleavage sites of these enzymes is of great interest. We developed an in vitro selection method that interrogates 1011 DNA sequences for cleavage by active, dimeric ZFNs. The method revealed hundreds of thousands of DNA sequences, some present in(More)
Directly modulating the activity of genome-editing proteins has the potential to increase their specificity by reducing activity following target locus modification. We developed Cas9 nucleases that are activated by the presence of a cell-permeable small molecule by inserting an evolved 4-hydroxytamoxifen-responsive intein at specific positions in Cas9. In(More)
The laboratory evolution of enzymes with tailor-made DNA cleavage specificities would represent new tools for manipulating genomes and may enhance our understanding of sequence-specific DNA recognition by nucleases. Below we describe the development and successful application of an efficient in vivo positive and negative selection system that applies(More)
We describe a physical mRNA mapping strategy employing fluorescent self-quenching reporter molecules (SQRMs) that facilitates the identification of mRNA sequence accessible for hybridization with antisense nucleic acids in vitro and in vivo, real time. SQRMs are 20-30 base oligodeoxynucleotides with 5-6 bp complementary ends to which a 5' fluorophore and 3'(More)
Gene-editing nucleases enable targeted modification of DNA sequences in living cells, thereby facilitating efficient knockout and precise editing of endogenous loci. Engineered nucleases also have the potential to introduce mutations at off-target sites of action. Such unintended alterations can confound interpretation of experiments and can have(More)
The rapid development of programmable site-specific endonucleases has led to a dramatic increase in genome engineering activities for research and therapeutic purposes. Specific loci of interest in the genomes of a wide range of organisms including mammals can now be modified using zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effectornucleases, and(More)
1Molecular Pathology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129 USA 2Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 USA 3Cell Circuits and Epigenomics Program, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA 4Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 5Department(More)