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Nontraditional social organisms have received increasing attention in recent years, because they present opportunities to study the convergent properties of social evolution. Some aphid species are social, occurring in dense clones with specialized morphs that attack predators and parasites. Little is known about how social aphid colonies resolve conflicts(More)
Publilia concava is an eastern North American membracid commonly occurring in large but spatially patchy aggregations, primarily on the host plant Solidago altissima. Like other myrmecophiles, P. concava provides sugary excretions to ants in return for the various protective, competitive or even sanitary benefits that ants provide. We developed nine(More)
Program Wyoming INBRE is supported by a grant from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (2P20GM103432) from the National Institutes of Health. Any opinions expressed or results presented are solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. *Please note that all(More)
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