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The modification of the LPS O-antigen, seen in the diverse serotypes of Shigella flexneri is brought about by the glucosyltransferases (Gtr) and the O-acetyltransferase (Oac). In this study, we establish the membrane topology of Oac using the dual reporter PhoA-LacZalpha. We have determined that Oac is an integral membrane protein with 10 transmembrane(More)
How tissue-specific anatomical distribution and phenotypic specialization are linked to protective efficacy of memory T cells against reinfection is unclear. Here, we show that lung environmental cues program recently recruited central-like memory cells with migratory potentials for their tissue-specific functions during lethal respiratory virus infection.(More)
The precise immune components required for protection against a respiratory Orthopoxvirus infection, such as human smallpox or monkeypox, remain to be fully identified. In this study, we used the virulent Western Reserve strain of vaccinia virus (VACV-WR) to model a primary respiratory Orthopoxvirus infection. Naive mice infected with VACV-WR mounted an(More)
CD8 T cells are a key component of immunity to many viral infections. They achieve this through using an array of effector mechanisms, but precisely which component/s are required for protection against a respiratory orthopox virus infection remains unclear. Using a model of respiratory vaccinia virus infection in mice, we could specifically determine the(More)
The human respiratory tract is an entry point for over 200 known viruses that collectively contribute to millions of annual deaths worldwide. Consequently, the World Health Organization has designated respiratory viral infections as a priority for vaccine development. Despite enormous advances in understanding the attributes of a protective mucosal(More)
Attenuated vaccinia virus (VACV) vectors are considered prime vaccine candidates for use in immunotherapy of infectious disease. In spite of this, recent data show that the level of attenuation may hamper the efficient generation of protective CD8 T cells. This suggests that additional adjuvant-like activities may need to be combined with attenuated VACV(More)
UNLABELLED In establishing a respiratory infection, vaccinia virus (VACV) initially replicates in airway epithelial cells before spreading to secondary sites of infection, mainly the draining lymph nodes, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, and reproductive organs. We recently reported that interferon gamma (IFN-γ) produced by CD8 T cells ultimately controls(More)
CD8+ T cells play an important role in host resistance to many viral infections, but the underlying transcriptional mechanisms governing their differentiation and functionality remain poorly defined. By using a highly virulent systemic and respiratory poxvirus infection in mice, we show that the transcription factor Bcl11b provides a dual trigger that(More)
Cognate interactions between T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and B cells are essential for promoting protective Ab responses. Whereas costimulatory receptors such as ICOS are accepted as being important for the induction of Tfh cell fate decision, other molecules may play key roles in amplifying or maintaining the Tfh phenotype. In this study, with vaccinia(More)
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