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Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with social deficits and behavioral abnormalities. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress may contribute to the etiology of autism. This is the first study to compare the activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes (I-V) and pyruvate(More)
Amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) is present in soluble form in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of normal people and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, in AD patients, Abeta gets fibrillized as the main constituent of amyloid plaques in the brain. Soluble synthetic Abeta also forms amyloid-like fibrils when it is allowed to age. The(More)
During the course of the expression of a 47-kDa COOH-terminal fragment of brain-type nonmuscle myosin heavy chain (MIIBF47), we found two closely related forms of MIIB, designated MIIB alpha and MIIB beta, in rabbit brains. The B alpha form corresponded to SMemb, described by Kuro-o et al. [(1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 3768] and was the more abundant form in(More)
Microviscosity of the biological membranes is determined by measuring the fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene (DPH). DPH, a hydrophobic probe, has negligible fluorescence in the solution. When DPH is incorporated into the membrane, it is localized in the membrane hydrophobic core and fluoresces strongly. We report here that DPH also fluoresces(More)
Microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase from rat liver is activated by phosphatidylcholine but inhibited by lysophosphatidylcholine. Inhibition occurs not by membrane lysis but in an intact bilayer; it is reversible; and it is overcome by addition of cholesterol but not if the cholesterol-hydroxyl group is blocked. An analog of lysophosphatidylcholine deprived of(More)
Sonicated cholesterol-phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes containing 4 mol % phosphatidic acid (PA) aggregate in 10 mM Ca2+, slowly at low molar fractions of cholesterol (up to 30%) and 15 times faster at higher concentrations; the inflection point is at ca. 35 mol % bilayer cholesterol. O-[[(Methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethyl]cholesterol (OH-blocked cholesterol)(More)
Recent cloning and sequencing studies suggest that heavy chains of all non-muscle myosins II have a protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation site within their tail regions. A fragment of human macrophage myosin heavy chain, encompassing its COOH-terminal 396 amino acids (MIIAF46), was expressed in Escherichia coli to provide a model system for study of(More)
Previously, we showed that myosin II heavy chains bind to phosphatidylserine (PS) liposomes via their COOH terminal regions and that protein kinase C (PK C) phosphorylates the PS-bound heavy chains [Murakami et al. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 16082-16090]. In this report, we studied the phospholipid binding, the kinetics of phosphorylation by PK C, and the(More)
Actin-binding proteins such as profilin and gelsolin bind to phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4,5-bisphosphate (PI 4,5-P2) and regulate the concentration of monomeric actin. We report here that profilin and gelsolin stimulate PI 3-kinase-mediated phosphorylation of PI 4,5-P2 (lipid kinase activity) in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect is specific to(More)
Amyloid beta-protein (Abeta), in its soluble form, is known to bind several circulatory proteins such as apolipoprotein (apo) E, apo J and transthyretin. However, the binding of Abeta to intracellular proteins has not been studied. We have developed an overlay assay to study Abeta binding to intracellular brain proteins. The supernatants from both rat and(More)