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In many regions of the visual system, the activity of a neuron is normalized by the activity of other neurons in the same region. Here we show that a similar normalization occurs during olfactory processing in the Drosophila antennal lobe. We exploit the orderly anatomy of this circuit to independently manipulate feedforward and lateral input to(More)
Here we describe several fundamental principles of olfactory processing in the Drosophila melanogaster antennal lobe (the analog of the vertebrate olfactory bulb), through the systematic analysis of input and output spike trains of seven identified glomeruli. Repeated presentations of the same odor elicit more reproducible responses in second-order(More)
Each odorant receptor gene defines a unique type of olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) and a corresponding type of second-order neuron. Because each odor can activate multiple ORN types, information must ultimately be integrated across these processing channels to form a unified percept. Here, we show that, in Drosophila, integration begins at the level of(More)
Signaling by heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) drives numerous cellular processes. The number of G protein molecules activated by a single membrane receptor is a determinant of signal amplification, although in most cases this parameter remains unknown. In retinal rod photoreceptors, a long-lived photoisomerized rhodopsin molecule activates(More)
Sensory receptors transduce physical stimuli in the environment into neural signals that are interpreted by the brain. Although considerable attention has been given to how the sensitivity and dynamic range of sensory receptors is established, peripheral synaptic interactions improve the fidelity with which receptor output is transferred to the brain. For(More)
Freely flying Drosophila melanogaster respond to odors by increasing their flight speed and turning upwind. Both these flight behaviors can be recapitulated in a tethered fly, which permits the odor stimulus to be precisely controlled. In this study, we investigated the relationship between these behaviors and odor-evoked activity in primary sensory(More)
An important contributing factor for the high sensitivity of sensory systems is the exquisite sensitivity of the sensory receptor cells. We report here the signaling threshold of the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN). We first obtained a best estimate of the size of the physiological electrical response successfully triggered by a single odorant-binding event(More)
Neural processing in the brain controls behavior through descending neurons (DNs) - neurons which carry signals from the brain to the spinal cord (or thoracic ganglia in insects). Because DNs arise from multiple circuits in the brain, the numerical simplicity and availability of genetic tools make Drosophila a tractable model for understanding descending(More)
Modulatory descending neurons (DNs) that link the brain to body motor circuits, including dopaminergic DNs (DA-DNs), are thought to contribute to the flexible control of behavior. Dopamine elicits locomotor-like outputs and influences neuronal excitability in isolated body motor circuits over tens of seconds to minutes, but it remains unknown how and over(More)
DL1: wild-type is w[1118] or Or42b[EY14886] a or Or42b-Gal4/UAS-DiphTx;Or92a-Gal4/UAS-DiphTx b , mutant is Or10a[f03694] Fig. S2 same as Fig. S1 Fig. S3 control: w[1118] mutant: Or83b[2] Fig. S4 control: Or33c-Gal4/+; UAS-DTl/+ c or Or33c-Gal4/UAS-DTl c rescued: Or46-Gal4/UAS-Or83b;Or83b[2] Fig. S5 wild-type: w[1118] mutant: Or42a[f04305];∆85 Fig. S6 see(More)