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The memory subsystem accounts for a significant cost and power budget of a computer system. Current DRAM-based main memory systems are starting to hit the power and cost limit. An alternative memory technology that uses resistance contrast in phase-change materials is being actively investigated in the circuits community. <i>Phase Change Memory (PCM)</i>(More)
Phase Change Memory (PCM) is an emerging memory technology that can increase main memory capacity in a cost-effective and power-efficient manner. However, PCM cells can endure only a maximum of 10<sup>7</sup> - 10<sup>8</sup> writes, making a PCM based system have a lifetime of only a few years under ideal conditions. Furthermore, we show that(More)
Leakage power is a major concern in current and future microprocessor designs. In this paper, we explore the potential of architectural techniques to reduce leakage through power-gating of execution units. This paper first develops parameterized analytical equations that estimate the break-even point for application of power-gating techniques. The potential(More)
As technology scaling poses a threat to DRAM scaling due to physical limitations such as limited charge, alternative memory technologies including several emerging non-volatile memories are being explored as possible DRAM replacements. One main roadblock for wider adoption of these new memories is the limited write endurance, which leads to wear-out related(More)
While Processing-in-Memory has been investigated for decades, it has not been embraced commercially. A number of emerging technologies have renewed interest in this topic. In particular, the emergence of 3D stacking and the imminent release of Micron's Hybrid Memory Cube device have made it more practical to move computation near memory. However, the(More)
A key challenge in architecting a CMP with many cores is maintaining cache coherence in an efficient manner. Directory-based protocols avoid the bandwidth overhead of snoop-based protocols, and therefore scale to a large number of cores. Unfortunately, conventional directory structures incur significant area overheads in larger CMPs. The <i>Tagless(More)
It has long been empirically observed that the cache miss rate decreased as a power law of cache size, where the power was approximately-1/2. In this paper, we examine the dependence of the cache miss rate on cache size both theoretically and through simulation. By combining the observed time dependence of the cache reference pattern with a statistical(More)
The diierence in processor and main memory cycle time has necessitated the use of aggressive prefetching techniques to reduce or hide main memory access latency. However, prefetching can signiicantly increase memory bandwidth and unsuccessful prefetches may even pollute the primary cache. Although the current metrics, coverage and accuracy, do provide an(More)
During the concept phase and definition of next generation high-end processors, power and performance will need to be weighted appropriately to deliver competitive cost/performance. It is not enough to adopt a CPl-centric view alone in early-stage definition studies. One of the fundamental issues confronting the architect at this stage is the choice of(More)
One of the key scalability challenges of on-chip coherence in a multicore chip is the coherence directory, which provides information on sharing of cache blocks. Shadow tags that duplicate entire private cache tag arrays are widely used to minimize area overhead, but require an energy-intensive associative search to obtain the sharing information. Recent(More)