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BACKGROUND Strategies aiming at minimization or elimination of systemic immunosuppression are key immediate goals for clinical expansion of vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA). We compared the in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory efficacy of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) and bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs in a rat VCA model.(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS A new differentiation pathway for CD4(-)CD8(-) (DN) T cells has recently been identified that exhibits the potent function of peripheral converted DN T cells in suppressing immune responses and provides the potential to treat autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to determine if the DN T cells converted from CD4(+) T cells of NOD(More)
Over the past century, the concept of interfering with the immune response at various sites by blocking the formation, stimulation, proliferation, and differentiation of lymphocytes has led to relentless development of new immunosuppressive drugs. These agents are associated with reduced risk of short- and long-term toxicity and have dramatically improved(More)
Skin rejection after hand transplantation is characterized by a maculopapular erythematous rash that may be diffuse, patchy or focal, and distributed over forearms and dorsum of the hands. This 'classical' pattern of rejection usually spares the skin of the palm and does not affect the nails. Herein, we report the experience on four cases presenting with an(More)
BACKGROUND We and others have shown that mixed allogeneic chimerism induces donor-specific tolerance to composite tissue allografts across major histocompatibility complex barriers without the need for immunosuppression. However, a delay period between bone marrow transplantation and limb allotransplantation is required, making such protocols impractical(More)
A commentary on Mesenchymal stem cells are short-lived and do not migrate beyond the lungs after intravenous infusion Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are under investigation for clinical application. Despite approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration for MSC use in pediatric steroid-refractory acute GvHD after allogeneic hematopoi-etic stem(More)
PURPOSE The feasibility of hand allotransplantation has been demonstrated. The purpose of the article is to report the (1) functional return, (2) psychosocial outcomes, (3) clinical and histological assessment for rejection, (4) complications, and (5) graft survival in the 2 American hand transplant recipients. METHODS We present 2 patients 106 and 81(More)
Upper extremity transplantation is an innovative reconstructive strategy with potential of immediate clinical application and the most near-term pay-off for select amputees, allowing reintegration into employment and society. Routine applicability and widespread impact of such strategies for the upper extremity amputees with devastating limb loss could be(More)
The immunosuppressive medications developed over the past 3 decades have paved the way for solid organ transplantation to become the treatment of choice for end-stage organ failure. At the end of the century, composite tissue transplantation in humans was performed with success using the same immunosuppressive medications and therapeutic principles. A(More)
Recent advances in transplant immunology are shifting the focus from immunosuppression to immunoregulation, making composite tissue allotransplantation with novel and less potent immunosuppressive regimens a possibility. Hand transplantation has been the most frequently performed human composite tissue allotransplantation, with more than 50 upper(More)