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BACKGROUND Previous studies suggest that transforming growth factor-beta provokes cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis; however, it is unclear whether the deleterious effects of transforming growth factor-beta signaling are conveyed through SMAD-dependent or SMAD-independent signaling pathways. METHODS AND RESULTS To determine the contribution of(More)
Recent studies have suggested a potentially important role for a family of tiny regulatory RNAs, known as microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs), in the control of diverse aspects of cardiac function in health and disease. Although the field of miRNA biology is relatively new, there is emerging evidence that miRNAs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of(More)
The mechanisms that are responsible for the development of myocardial fibrosis in inflammatory cardiomyopathy are unknown. We have previously generated lines of transgenic mice with cardiac-restricted overexpression of tumor necrosis factor (MHCsTNF mice), a pro-inflammatory cytokine. The MHCsTNF mice develop a heart failure phenotype that is characterized(More)
Anemia is a common finding among patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Although comorbidities, such as kidney failure, might contribute to the pathogenesis of anemia, many patients with HF do not have any other obvious etiology for their anemia. We investigated whether anemia in HF is associated with an elevation in hepcidin concentration. We used(More)
BACKGROUND Tumor necrosis factor superfamily ligands provoke a dilated cardiac phenotype signal through a common scaffolding protein termed tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2); however, virtually nothing is known about TRAF2 signaling in the adult mammalian heart. METHODS AND RESULTS We generated multiple founder lines of mice with(More)
Unsupervised K-means cluster analysis and self-organizing maps (SOM) were employed to cluster patients based on feature values in the large Digitalis Investigation Group (DIG) trial database of digoxin for heart failure treatment. We observed that use of standardized features for input into SOM resulted in clusters for which the pattern of features were(More)
We studied heart failure mortality and hospitalization of N=7,788 subjects in the Digitalis Intervention Group (DIG) clinical trial. Cases were defined as subjects with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III–IV symptoms, while controls were defined as subjects with NYHA class I–II symptomatology. Controls were propensity matched with(More)
BACKGROUND Digoxin has been shown to reduce heart failure (HF) hospitalizations with no overall effect on mortality in HF patients. We used cluster analysis to delineate the clinical characteristics of HF patients in whom digoxin therapy was associated with improved or worsened clinical outcomes. METHODS The Digitalis Investigation Group (DIG) database(More)
—Recent studies have suggested a potentially important role for a family of tiny regulatory RNAs, known as microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs), in the control of diverse aspects of cardiac function in health and disease. Although the field of miRNA biology is relatively new, there is emerging evidence that miRNAs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of(More)
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