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OBJECTIVES Spoken bilingualism may be associated with cognitive reserve. Mastering a complicated written language may be associated with additional reserve. We sought to determine if midlife use of spoken and written Japanese was associated with lower rates of late life cognitive decline. METHODS Participants were second-generation Japanese-American men(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine whether the installation of equipment for diaper-changing, hand-washing, and food preparation that is specifically designed to reduce the transmission of infectious agents would result in a decrease in the rate of diarrheal illness among children and their teachers in child care centers. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND The cognitive reserve hypothesis would predict that use of written Japanese should confer protection against dementia because of the complexity of its ideograms compared with written English. We sought to test this hypothesis in analyses from a longitudinal study of Japanese-American men. METHODS Participants were second-generation(More)
We describe a uniied framework for representing and manipulating binary topological relationships between complex regions, which are arbitrary compositions of homogeneous 2-dimensional surfaces, possibly with holes. Previously, compositions of regions and regions with holes were treated separately and in a restrictive scenario, where it is required that the(More)
We are given a set ofn d-dimensional (possibly intersecting) isothetic hyperrectangles. The topic of this paper is the separation of these rectangles by means of a cutting isothetic hyperplane. Thereby we assume that a rectangle which is intersected by the cutting plane iscut into two non-overlapping hyperrectangles. We investigate the behavior of several(More)
BACKGROUND To address the public health crisis of overweight and obese preschool-age children, the Nutrition And Physical Activity Self Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) intervention was delivered by nurse child care health consultants with the objective of improving child care provider and parent nutrition and physical activity knowledge, center-level(More)
BACKGROUND In Vietnam, environmental pollution caused by small-scale domestic smelting of automobile batteries into lead ingot is a growing concern. The village of Nghia Lo is a smelting craft village located roughly 25 km southeast of Hanoi in the Red River Delta. Despite the concern of toxic metal exposure in the village, biomonitoring among susceptible(More)
BACKGROUND Several lifestyle and environmental exposures have been suspected as risk factors for oral clefts, although few have been convincingly demonstrated. Studies across global diverse populations could offer additional insight given varying types and levels of exposures. METHODS We performed an international case-control study in the Democratic(More)