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In the normal brain, cellular types that compose the neurovascular unit, including neurons, astrocytes and endothelial cells express pannexins and connexins, which are protein subunits of two families that form plasma membrane channels. Most available evidence in mammals indicated that endogenously expressed pannexins only form hemichannels, and connexins(More)
The ventromedial hypothalamus is involved in regulating feeding and satiety behavior, and its neurons interact with specialized ependymal-glial cells, termed tanycytes. The latter express glucose-sensing proteins, including glucose transporter 2, glucokinase, and ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP) ) channels, suggesting their involvement in hypothalamic(More)
In normal brain, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, the most abundant and active cells express pannexins and connexins, protein subunits of two families forming membrane channels. Most available evidence indicates that in mammals endogenously expressed pannexins form only hemichannels and connexins form both gap junction channels and hemichannels.(More)
Glomerular hypertension and glomerular hypertrophy act early and synergistically to promote glomerular injury in diabetes. We have previously shown that increased renal kinin production contributes to the glomerular hemodynamic abnormalities associated with diabetes. Glomerulosclerosis, characterized by mesangial cell proliferation and matrix expansion, is(More)
Diabetic nephropathy alters both structure and function of the kidney. These alterations are associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species, matrix proteins, and proinflammatory molecules. Inflammation decreases gap junctional communication and increases hemichannel activity leading to increased membrane permeability and altering tissue(More)
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a clinical syndrome characterized by deterioration of renal function over a period of hours or days. The principal causes of ARF are ischemic and toxic insults that can induce tissue hypoxia. Transcriptional responses to hypoxia can be inflammatory or adaptive with the participation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha and the(More)
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is a prominent feature of the atherosclerotic process that occurs after endothelial injury. Although a vascular wall kallikrein-kinin system has been described, its contribution to vascular disease remains undefined. Because the B(1)-kinin receptor subtype (B1KR) is induced in VSMCs only in response to(More)
Vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration play an important role in the pathophysiology of several vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. Prostaglandins that have been implicated in this process are synthesized by two isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX), with the expression of the regulated COX-2 isoform increased in atherosclerotic(More)
Kinins are vasoactive peptides released from precursors called kininogens, and serum levels of both T- and K-kininogens increase dramatically as rats age. Kinin release is tightly regulated, and here we show that serum kinin levels also increase with age, from 63 +/- 16 nmol/L in young Fisher 344 rats to 398 +/- 102 nmol/L in old animals. Both K- and(More)