Victoria Velarde

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In normal brain, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, the most abundant and active cells express pannexins and connexins, protein subunits of two families forming membrane channels. Most available evidence indicates that in mammals endogenously expressed pannexins form only hemichannels and connexins form both gap junction channels and hemichannels.(More)
Brain ischemia causes more extensive injury in hyperglycemic than normoglycemic subjects, and the increased damage is to astroglia as well as neurons. In the present work, we found that in cortical astrocytes from rat or mouse, reoxygenation after hypoxia in a medium mimicking interstitial fluid during ischemia increases hemichannel activity and decreases(More)
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is a prominent feature of the atherosclerotic process occurring after endothelial injury. A vascular wall kallikrein-kinin system has been described. The contribution of this system to vascular disease is undefined. In the present study we characterized the signal transduction pathway leading to(More)
Glycation and/or oxidation of LDL may promote diabetic nephropathy. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, which includes extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs), modulates cell function. Therefore, we examined the effects of LDL on ERK phosphorylation in cultured rat mesangial cells. In cells exposed to 100 microg/ml native LDL(More)
The ventromedial hypothalamus is involved in regulating feeding and satiety behavior, and its neurons interact with specialized ependymal-glial cells, termed tanycytes. The latter express glucose-sensing proteins, including glucose transporter 2, glucokinase, and ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP) ) channels, suggesting their involvement in hypothalamic(More)
In the normal brain, cellular types that compose the neurovascular unit, including neurons, astrocytes and endothelial cells express pannexins and connexins, which are protein subunits of two families that form plasma membrane channels. Most available evidence in mammals indicated that endogenously expressed pannexins only form hemichannels, and connexins(More)
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is a prominent feature of the atherosclerotic process that occurs after endothelial injury. Although a vascular wall kallikrein-kinin system has been described, its contribution to vascular disease remains undefined. Because the B(1)-kinin receptor subtype (B1KR) is induced in VSMCs only in response to(More)
Bradykinin stimulates proliferation of aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We investigated the action of bradykinin on the phosphorylation state of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p42(mapk) and p44(mapk) in VSMCs and tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS) might be involved in the signal transduction pathway linking(More)
Diabetic nephropathy alters both structure and function of the kidney. These alterations are associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species, matrix proteins, and proinflammatory molecules. Inflammation decreases gap junctional communication and increases hemichannel activity leading to increased membrane permeability and altering tissue(More)
In addition to the induction of cell proliferation and migration, bradykinin (BK) can increase c-fos mRNA expression, activate ERK 1/2 and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). It is not known, however, whether BK can induce cellular proliferation and extracellular matrix production via redox-sensitive signaling(More)