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PNPase is a major exoribonuclease that plays an important role in the degradation, processing, and polyadenylation of RNA in prokaryotes and organelles. This phosphorolytic processive enzyme uses inorganic phosphate and nucleotide diphosphate for degradation and polymerization activities, respectively. Its structure and activities are similar to the(More)
It is largely recognized that microRNAs (miRNAs) function to silence gene expression by targeting 3'UTR regions. However, miRNAs have also been implicated to positively-regulate gene expression by targeting promoter elements, a phenomenon known as RNA activation (RNAa). In the present study, we show that expression of mouse Cyclin B1 (Ccnb1) is dependent on(More)
The mechanism of RNA degradation in Escherichia coli involves endonucleolytic cleavage, polyadenylation of the cleavage product by poly(A) polymerase, and exonucleolytic degradation by the exoribonucleases, polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) and RNase II. The poly(A) tails are homogenous, containing only adenosines in most of the growth conditions. In(More)
The addition of poly(A) tails to RNA is a phenomenon common to all organisms examined so far. No homologues of the known polyadenylating enzymes are found in Archaea and little is known concerning the mechanisms of messenger RNA degradation in these organisms. Hyperthermophiles of the genus Sulfolobus contain a protein complex with high similarity to the(More)
Small RNA molecules, such as microRNA and small interfering RNA, have emerged as master regulators of gene expression through their ability to suppress target genes in a phenomenon collectively called RNA interference (RNAi). There is growing evidence that small RNAs can also serve as activators of gene expression by targeting gene regulatory sequences.(More)
Polyadenylation is a process common to almost all organisms. In eukaryotes, stable poly(A)-tails, important for mRNA stability and translation initiation, are added to the 3' ends of most mRNAs. Contrarily, polyadenylation can stimulate RNA degradation, a phenomenon witnessed in prokaryotes, organelles and recently, for nucleus-encoded RNA as well.(More)
The posttranscriptional addition of poly(A) extensions to RNA is a phenomenon common to almost all organisms. In eukaryotes, a stable poly(A) tail is added to the 3'-end of most nucleus-encoded mRNAs, as well as to mitochondrion-encoded transcripts in animal cells. In prokaryotes and organelles, RNA molecules are polyadenylated as part of a(More)
To better understand the genetic controls of leaf senescence, a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. SR1) mRNA that is up-regulated during senescence was isolated by the cDNA-amplified restriction fragment polymorphism method and the cDNA was cloned. The mRNA coded for the early light-induced protein (ELIP), a member of the chlorophyll a/b-binding protein(More)
The addition of poly(A)-tails to RNA is a phenomenon common to almost all organisms. Not only homopolymeric poly(A)-tails, comprised exclusively of adenosines, but also heteropolymeric poly(A)-rich extensions, which include the other three nucleotides as well, have been observed in bacteria, archaea, chloroplasts, and human cells. Polynucleotide(More)
The molecular mechanism of mRNA degradation in the chloroplast consists of sequential events, including endonucleolytic cleavage, the addition of poly(A)-rich sequences to the endonucleolytic cleavage products, and exonucleolytic degradation. In spinach chloroplasts, the latter two steps of polyadenylation and exonucleolytic degradation are performed by the(More)