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Sub-cutaneous infection of interleukin (IL)-4-/- mice on the BALB/c background with third stage larva (L3) of Brugia pahangi revealed an altered cytokine profile consistent with the absence of the Th2 promoting cytokine IL-4. Splenocytes from IL-4-/- mice secreted significantly more antigen (Ag)-specific IL-2 and interferon-gamma and significantly less(More)
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. They were first identified in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where the miRNAs lin-4 and let-7 were shown to be essential for regulating correct developmental progression. The sequence of let-7 was subsequently found to be conserved in higher(More)
Infection of BALB/c mice with Brugia pahangi third-stage larvae (L3) results in the production of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-10 with a resultant down-regulation in Th1 responses. Previously, this was thought to reflect a skewing of immune responses towards a Th2 phenotype by the infective stage of the parasite. In this study, we show that exposure(More)
Mice infected with the L3 of the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi make a strong T(h)2 response characterized by elevated levels of antigen-specific IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10. Here we show that B cells from these animals are the major proliferating population in vitro with depletion of B cells or infection of muMT mice, resulting in reduced levels of(More)
BACKGROUND Hsp-90 from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is unique in that it fails to bind to the specific Hsp-90 inhibitor, geldanamycin (GA). Here we surveyed 24 different free-living or parasitic nematodes with the aim of determining whether C. elegans Hsp-90 was the exception or the norm amongst the nematodes. We combined these data with(More)
Filarial nematodes are important pathogens in the tropics transmitted to humans via the bite of blood sucking arthropod vectors. The molecular mechanisms underpinning survival and differentiation of these parasites following transmission are poorly understood. microRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate target mRNAs and we set out to(More)
Over the last decade microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression. miRNAs are short, non-coding RNAs that regulate a variety of processes including cancer, organ development and immune function. This class of small RNAs bind with partial complementarity to their target(More)
Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most frequent malignancy in Caucasian populations. Evidence suggests the involvement of cutaneous Human Papillomavirus (HPV) of the genus beta (beta) in this disease. The ability of E6 and E7 of mucosal HPV to promote cellular transformation and inhibit immune response-related pathways plays a key role in cervical(More)
Novel drugs are required for the elimination of infections caused by filarial worms, as most commonly used drugs largely target the microfilariae or first stage larvae of these infections. Previous studies, conducted in vitro, have shown that inhibition of Hsp90 kills adult Brugia pahangi. As numerous small molecule inhibitors of Hsp90 have been developed(More)
The chemotherapy of lymphatic filariasis relies upon drugs such as diethylcarbamazine and ivermectin that largely target the microfilarial stages of the parasite, necessitating continued treatment over the long reproductive life span of the adult worm. The identification of compounds that target adult worms has been a long-term goal of WHO. Here we describe(More)