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The dynamics of HIV-1 replication in vivo are largely unknown yet they are critical to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Experimental drugs that are potent inhibitors of viral replication can be used to show that the composite lifespan of plasma virus and virus-producing cells is remarkably short (half-life approximately 2 days). Almost complete(More)
New information about the benefits and limitations of testing for resistance to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) drugs has emerged. The International AIDS Society-USA convened a panel of physicians and scientists with expertise in antiretroviral drug management, HIV-1 drug resistance, and patient care to provide updated recommendations for(More)
BACKGROUND The clinical relevance of detecting minority drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants is uncertain. METHODS To determine the effect of pre-existing minority nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistant variants on the risk of virologic failure, we reanalyzed a case-cohort substudy of efavirenz(More)
OBJECTIVE Assays for drug resistance testing in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are now available and clinical studies suggest that viral drug resistance is correlated with poor virologic response to new therapy. The International AIDS Society-USA sought to update prior recommendations to provide guidance for clinicians regarding(More)
Objectives.—To review current knowledge of the biology and clinical implications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) resistance to antiretroviral drugs, describe assays for measuring resistance, and assess their use in clinical practice. Participants.—The International AIDS Society-USA assembled a panel of 13 physicians with expertise in basic science,(More)
The International AIDS Society-USA (IAS-USA) Drug Resistance Mutations Group is a volunteer panel of experts that meets regularly to review and interpret new data on HIV-1 resistance. The focus of the group is to identify mutations associated with clinical resistance to HIV-1. These mutations have been identified by 1 or more of the following criteria: (1)(More)
The population pharmacokinetics of nevirapine (NVP), zidovudine (ZDV), and didanosine (ddI) were evaluated in a total of 175 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus randomized to receive either a double combination of ZDV plus ddI or a triple combination of NVP plus ZDV plus ddI as a substudy of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 241.(More)
We determined the abilities of 10 technologies to detect and quantify a common drug-resistant mutant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (lysine to asparagine at codon 103 of the reverse transcriptase) using a blinded test panel containing mutant-wild-type mixtures ranging from 0.01% to 100% mutant. Two technologies, allele-specific reverse transcriptase(More)
To permit the characterization of cefpirome disposition in lactating females, a previously published high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for determining the drug in serum was adapted for use with milk and urine. This automated, microanalytical technique requires 50 microliters of biological matrix, which is subjected to an isopropanol(More)
Utilizing the structure-activity relationship we have developed during the synthesis of the first two generations and mechanism of action studies that point to the interaction of these molecules with the key oncogenic protein Hsp90, we report here the design of 32 new Sansalvamide A derivatives and their synthesis. Our new structures, designed from(More)