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BACKGROUND Although most epidemiological studies suggest that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use is inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, the magnitude and specificity of this association remain unclear. METHODS We examined self-reported aspirin and ibuprofen use in relation to prostate cancer risk among 29 450 men ages 55-74 who were(More)
Alteration of exposure to ovarian hormones, by eliminating or impairing the function of one or both ovaries, may affect the risk of breast cancer. To assess the relationship between reproductive surgical procedures and breast cancer risk, we conducted a retrospective cohort study involving 524,709 Ontario women who underwent tubal ligation or other(More)
PURPOSE Some mental illnesses have been suggested to be associated with obesity, although results are somewhat inconsistent and research has focused mainly on depression. METHODS Associations between anxiety, depression, medications for these illnesses, and obesity were investigated cross-sectionally among women aged 25-74 (n = 3004) who participated as(More)
BACKGROUND Dietary lycopene and tomato products may reduce risk of prostate cancer; however, uncertainty remains about this possible association. METHODS We evaluated the association between intake of lycopene and specific tomato products and prostate cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, a multicenter study(More)
BACKGROUND Several epidemiologic studies have reported associations between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk of prostate cancer, but the findings are inconsistent and data on clinically relevant advanced prostate cancer are limited. METHODS We evaluated the association between prostate cancer risk and intake of fruits and vegetables in 1338(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C are micronutrient antioxidants that protect cells from oxidative damage involved in prostate carcinogenesis. In separate trials, supplemental vitamin E was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer among smokers and supplemental beta-carotene was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer(More)
Botanical supplements are widely used and contain diverse ingredients, including isoflavones. Food-based isoflavones have been associated with reduced breast cancer risk. However, no study has comprehensively evaluated supplements identified by isoflavone content and breast cancer risk. Associations between ever use of 28 isoflavone supplements and breast(More)
High-temperature cooked meat contains heterocyclic amines, including 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). In rodents, a high intake of PhIP induces prostate tumors. We prospectively investigated the association between meat and meat mutagens, specifically PhIP, and(More)
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may play a role in breast cancer prevention; however, breast cancer subtypes and lifestyle/host factors may influence their impact. During 1996-1998 in Canada, the authors examined the association between regular NSAID use (defined as daily use for at least 2 months) and breast cancer risk by estrogen receptor(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence that factors such as current hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use and mammographic density may each lower the sensitivity of mammography and are associated with a greater risk of developing an interval cancer. This study explores this relationship further by examining the influence of patterns of HRT use and the percentage of(More)