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Few animals models are currently in use for the recognized clinical problem of nicotine dependence and abstinence. This study introduces a rapid and convenient model using the rat. Sixteen male rats were rendered nicotine dependent by 7 days of continuous subcutaneous infusion of either 3 mg/kg/day (n = 8) or 9 mg/kg/day (n = 8) nicotine tartrate salt; 8(More)
Recently, a rodent model of nicotine abstinence syndrome has been developed based on observing the frequency of spontaneous behavioral signs following termination of continuous subcutaneous infusion of nicotine tartrate. In the present study, the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine precipitated an abstinence syndrome in nicotine-dependent rats. Twelve rats(More)
Recently, a rodent model of nicotine abstinence syndrome has been developed based on continuous subcutaneous infusion of nicotine tartrate and observing the frequency of spontaneous behavioral signs following termination of infusion. The observed signs closely resemble those commonly seen in rat opiate abstinence syndrome, raising the possibility that there(More)
Crystalloids are transient organelles that form in developing malaria ookinetes and disappear after ookinete-to-oocyst transition. Their origins and functions remain poorly understood. The Plasmodium berghei scavenger receptor-like protein PbSR is essential for mosquito-to-host transmission of the parasite: PbSR knockout parasites produce normal numbers of(More)
In a recently introduced rodent model of nicotine abstinence syndrome, the observed signs closely resembled those typical of rat opiate abstinence syndrome. Signs were precipitated by naloxone and potently reversed by morphine as well as nicotine itself, suggesting that nicotine might relieve nicotine abstinence syndrome through releasing endogenous(More)
A shared feature of the motile stages (zoites) of malaria parasites is a cortical cytoskeletal structure termed subpellicular network (SPN), thought to define and maintain cell shape. Plasmodium alveolins comprise structural components of the SPN, and alveolin gene knockout causes morphological abnormalities that coincide with markedly reduced tensile(More)
Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) has been shown to exert various antiopiate actions, including precipitation of opiate abstinence syndrome by third ventricle injection in morphine dependent rats. In the present study, dansyl-Pro-Gln-Arg-Phe-amide, a lipophilic analog of NPFF, was injected into morphine dependent rats and appropriate sham controls at a dose of 9 mg/kg(More)
The role of protein kinases in organisms that diverged early in the eukaryotic lineage is relatively unexplored. In this study, we determined that primitive parasitic protozoa possess multiple protein-serine kinases and inferred the presence of protein-tyrosine kinases through sensitive immunoblotting techniques. To further explore the role of protein(More)
The expression and function of eukaryotic protein kinases is highly regulated, primarily through transcriptional and post-translational processes. In this report we demonstrate an unusual mechanism for controlling protein kinase function, translational control. The Trypanosoma brucei Nrk loci encode predicted protein kinases. Here we show that Nrk has(More)