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An approach combining virology with light and electron microscopy was used to study the organs of guinea pigs during nine serial passages of Ebola virus, strain Zaire. It was observed that the wild type of Ebola virus causes severe granulomatous inflammation in the liver and reproduces in the cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). Based on(More)
Activated T cells require increased energy to proliferate and mediate effector functions, but the metabolic changes that occur in T cells following stimulation in vivo are poorly understood, particularly in the context of inflammation. We have previously shown that T cells activated during graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) primarily rely on oxidative(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the role of free-radical and oxidative stress signaling in granuloma maturation and resolution. We aimed to study the activity of free-radical oxidation processes in the dynamics of BCG-induced generalized granulomatosis in mice. METHODS Chronic granulomatous inflammation was induced in male BALB/c mice by intravenously(More)
Nrf2 regulates expression of genes containing antioxidant-respons(iv)e element (ARE) in their promoters and plays a pivotal role among all redox-sensitive transcription factors. Nrf2 is constitutively controlled by repressor protein Keap1, which acts as a molecular sensor of disturbances in cellular homeostasis. These molecular patterns are in close(More)
The redox-sensitive signaling system Keap1/Nrf2/ARE plays a key role in maintenance of cellular homeostasis under stress, inflammatory, carcinogenic, and proapoptotic conditions, which allows us to consider it as a pharmacological target. Here we review the basic regulatory mechanisms of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE system, key targets for pharmacological(More)
The Nrf2 transcription factor plays a key role in cell defense against oxidative stress, as well as in counteracting the chemical and physical factors that induce apoptosis and carcinogenesis. The review considers the mechanism of the Nrf2/ARE redox regulation and ARE-mediated gene expression. Special attention is paid to the anti-inflammatory effects of th(More)
Interleukin (IL)-33 binding to the receptor suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) produces pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Increased levels of soluble ST2 (sST2) are a biomarker for steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and mortality. However, whether sST2 has a role as an immune modulator or only as a biomarker during GVHD was(More)
T-cell activation requires increased ATP and biosynthesis to support proliferation and effector function. Most models of T-cell activation are based on in vitro culture systems and posit that aerobic glycolysis is employed to meet increased energetic and biosynthetic demands. By contrast, T cells activated in vivo by alloantigens in graft-versus-host(More)
The coinhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) maintains immune homeostasis by negatively regulating T cell function and survival. Blockade of PD-1 increases the severity of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), but the interplay between PD-1 inhibition and T cell metabolism is not well studied. We found that both murine and human alloreactive T cells(More)
One of the central challenges of transplantation is the development of alloreactivity despite the use of multiagent immunoprophylaxis. Effective control of this immune suppression-resistant T-cell activation represents one of the key unmet needs in the fields of both solid-organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT). To address this unmet need, we(More)