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Chemoreceptors in Escherichia coli are coupled to the flagella by a labile phosphorylated intermediate, CheY approximately P. Its activity can be inferred from the rotational bias of flagellar motors, but motor response is stochastic and limited to a narrow physiological range. Here we use fluorescence resonance energy transfer to monitor interactions of(More)
In Escherichia coli chemotaxis, signaling depends on modulation of the level of phosphorylation of CheY, a small protein that couples receptors and flagellar motors. Working in vivo, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to measure the interaction of CheY approximately P with its target, FliM. Binding of CheY approximately P to FliM was(More)
We prepared fusions of yellow fluorescent protein [the YFP variant of green fluorescent protein (GFP)] with the cytoplasmic chemotaxis proteins CheY, CheZ and CheA and the flagellar motor protein FliM, and studied their localization in wild-type and mutant cells of Escherichia coli. All but the CheA fusions were functional. The cytoplasmic proteins CheY,(More)
Cellular biochemical networks have to function in a noisy environment using imperfect components. In particular, networks involved in gene regulation or signal transduction allow only for small output tolerances, and the underlying network structures can be expected to have undergone evolution for inherent robustness against perturbations. Here we combine(More)
Simulation of cellular behavior on multiple scales requires models that are sufficiently detailed to capture central intracellular processes but at the same time enable the simulation of entire cell populations in a computationally cheap way. In this paper we present RapidCell, a hybrid model of chemotactic Escherichia coli that combines the(More)
Signal recognition particle (SRP)-dependent protein targeting is a universally conserved process that delivers proteins to the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane or to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane in eukaryotes. Crucial during targeting is the transfer of the ribosome-nascent chain complex (RNC) from SRP to the Sec translocon. In eukaryotes, this step is(More)
Bacterial chemotaxis is a model system for signal transduction, noted for its relative simplicity, high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and robustness. Changes in ligand concentrations are sensed by a protein assembly consisting of transmembrane receptors, a coupling protein (CheW) and a histidine kinase (CheA). In Escherichia coli, these components are(More)
The two-component pathway in Escherichia coli chemotaxis has become a paradigm for bacterial signal processing. Genetics and biochemistry of the pathway as well as physiological responses have been studied in detail. Despite its relative simplicity, the chemotaxis pathway is renowned for its ability to amplify and integrate weak signals and for its(More)
Bacteria, fungi and plants rescue aggregated proteins using a powerful bichaperone system composed of an Hsp70 chaperone and an Hsp100 AAA+ disaggregase. In Escherichia coli, the Hsp70 chaperone DnaK binds aggregates and targets the disaggregase ClpB to the substrate. ClpB hexamers use ATP to thread substrate polypeptides through the central pore, driving(More)
Chemotactic stimuli in bacteria are sensed by large sensory complexes, or receptor clusters, that consist of tens of thousands of proteins. Receptor clusters appear to play a key role in signal processing, but their structure remains poorly understood. Here we used fluorescent protein fusions to study in vivo formation of the cluster core, which consists of(More)