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This randomized controlled trial with blinded assessment aimed to determine the effect of a 6-month minimally supervised exercise program on fall risk factors in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Forty-eight participants with PD who had fallen or were at risk of falling were randomized into exercise or control groups. The exercise group attended a(More)
Parkinson disease (PD) is a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder that affects about 1% of the population over the age of 55 years and has mean age of onset of about 60 years. The Braak hypothesis proposes that the earliest pathological evidence of PD is found in the enteric nervous system, medulla and olfactory bulb, and only subsequently progresses (over(More)
This report describes the consensus outcome of an international panel consisting of investigators with years of experience in this field that reviewed the definition and classification of dystonia. Agreement was obtained based on a consensus development methodology during 3 in-person meetings and manuscript review by mail. Dystonia is defined as a movement(More)
BACKGROUND Selective olfactory deficits occur in 70% to 90% of patients with Parkinson disease, independent of disease severity and duration. Olfactory testing may be a useful diagnostic aid for Parkinson disease, but the types of odors most commonly affected need to be identified. OBJECTIVE To determine the pattern and types of odors affected in(More)
This is the second neuropathological report detailing bilateral electrodes targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). The patient presented with unilateral tremor-dominant parkinsonism. Bilateral STN stimulation was carried out 7 years later due to significant disease progression and severe motor fluctuations. The(More)
Dystonia in the neck region can be safely and effectively reduced with injections of Botulinum neurotoxin-A and B. People with idiopathic cervical dystonia have been studied the most. Benefits following injection include increased range of movement at the neck for head turning, decreased pain, and increased functional capacity (Class I evidence, level A(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether falls can be prevented with minimally supervised exercise targeting potentially remediable fall risk factors, i.e., poor balance, reduced leg muscle strength, and freezing of gait, in people with Parkinson disease. METHODS Two hundred thirty-one people with Parkinson disease were randomized into exercise or usual-care(More)
Impulse control and related disorders (ICRD) are not uncommon in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ICRD on quality of life (QoL) and disability in PD. From two movement disorder clinics in Sydney, Australia, 100 consecutive patients with PD were included in the trial. The Unified(More)
The suppression of automatic prepotent behaviour in favour of more successful, more 'appropriate' behaviour is the primary function of the frontal lobe. Five frontal-subcortical circuits connect the frontal lobe to the basal ganglia and the thalamus. We report 17 patients with small lesions in the downstream structures of the frontal-subcortical circuits(More)