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The structure of mutualistic networks provides clues to processes shaping biodiversity [1-10]. Among them, interaction intimacy, the degree of biological association between partners, leads to differences in specialization patterns [4, 11] and might affect network organization [12]. Here, we investigated potential consequences of interaction intimacy for(More)
Despite recognition of key biotic processes in shaping the structure of biological communities, few empirical studies have explored the influences of abiotic factors on the structural properties of mutualistic networks. We tested whether temperature and precipitation contribute to temporal variation in the nestedness of mutualistic ant–plant networks. While(More)
Despite the importance and increasing knowledge of ecological networks, sampling effort and intrapopulation variation has been widely overlooked. Using continuous daily sampling of ants visiting three plant species in the Brazilian Neotropical savanna, we evaluated for the first time the topological structure over 24 h and species-area relationships (based(More)
Mutualistic networks involving plants and their pollinators or frugivores have been shown recently to exhibit a particular asymmetrical organization of interactions among species called nestedness: a core of reciprocal generalists accompanied by specialist species that interact almost exclusively with generalists. This structure contrasts with(More)
Caterpillar shelters provide protection against desiccation and natural enemies, whereas extra-floral nectaries (EFNs) may be an anti-herbivore adaptation that reduces herbivore abundance by attracting predators and parasites. We used a large, long-term dataset for caterpillars found in the Brazilian cerrado to examine temporal variations in the relative(More)
Extrafloral nectar of plants and honeydew of hemipterans is a food source extensively explored by ants. Although basically a sugary liquid food, nectar and honeydew are composed of different nutrients and offered in distinct ways; thus, ants must interact differently with plants and hemipterans. In this study we assessed the availability and dominance of(More)
b centro iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad (ciBio), campus san Vicente del Raspeig universidad de alicante, alicante, España; c coNacYt-centro interdisciplinario de investigación para el Desarrollo integral Regional unidad oaxaca ABSTRACT The Horned Guan (Oreophasis derbianus) is a cracid restricted to cloud forests in the Sierra Madre of Chiapas in Mexico(More)
Trying to unravel Darwin's entangled bank further, we describe the architecture of a network involving multiple forms of mutualism (pollination by animals, seed dispersal by birds and plant protection by ants) and evaluate whether this multi-network shows evidence of a structure that promotes robustness. We found that species differed strongly in their(More)
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