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Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other Verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) are zoonotic pathogens associated with food and waterborne illness around the world. E. coli O157:H7 has been implicated in large outbreaks as well as in sporadic cases of haemorrhagic colitis and the sometimes fatal haemolytic uremic syndrome. VTs produced by these bacteria are(More)
The pan-genome of a bacterial species consists of a core and an accessory gene pool. The accessory genome is thought to be an important source of genetic variability in bacterial populations and is gained through lateral gene transfer, allowing subpopulations of bacteria to better adapt to specific niches. Low-cost and high-throughput sequencing platforms(More)
Three groups of six yearling steers (three rumen fistulated plus three nonfistulated) fed one of three different grain diets (85% cracked corn, 15% whole cottonseed and 70% barley, or 85% barley) were inoculated with 10(10) CFU of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain 3081, and the presence of the inoculated strain was followed in the rumen fluid and feces for a(More)
Porcine verotoxigenic Escherichia coli were characterized with respect to frequency of occurrence, serogroup, and association with disease, weaning, and selected properties of the bacterium. Of 668 strains of E. coli from southern Ontario pigs with enteric disease, 32 (4.8%) produced verotoxin at 10(3)-10(7) cytotoxic doses per mL of culture supernatant. Of(More)
Genetic analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains has shown divergence into two distinct lineages, lineages I and II, that appear to have distinct ecological characteristics, with lineage I strains more commonly associated with human disease. In this study, microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used to identify genomic differences(More)
Bacteroidales host-specific PCR offers a rapid method of diagnosing fecal pollution in water and identifying sources of input. To assess human health risks from exposure to fecal pathogens, however, Bacteroidales markers should be detectable when pathogens are present. To determine if Bacteroidales general, human-, ruminant-, and swine-specific markers(More)
The Oldman River watershed in southern Alberta, Canada, is an extensively irrigated region in which intensive agricultural practices have flourished. Concern over water quality in the basin has been expressed because of high levels of enteric disease indigenous to the region. To address these concerns, we conducted a 2-year study to estimate the prevalence(More)
Over a seven-year period (2004-2010) 1095 water samples were obtained from the South Nation River basin at multiple watershed monitoring sites (Ontario, Canada). Real-time PCR using Bacteroidales specific markers was used to identify the origin (human (10% prevalence), ruminant (22%), pig (~2%), Canada goose (4%) and muskrat (7%)) of fecal pollution. In(More)
Shiga-like toxin (SLT-IIv) from Escherichia coli strains associated with edema disease of pigs was characterized and compared with SLT-I, SLT-II, and the SLT of E. coli strain HI8 (SLT-HI8). SLT-IIv from an E. coli K12 in which the genes for SLT-IIv had been cloned was indistinguishable from SLT-IIv of wild strains of E. coli from edema disease. There was(More)
A total of 1012 milk filters collected from 498 dairy farms in south-western Ontario during three study periods (December 1985-March 1986) were tested for the presence of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC). VTEC were detected and isolated using a Vero cell assay. Supernatants from 20 of the milk filter cultures had verocytotoxic activity and 7(More)