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Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are new materials of emerging technological importance. As SWCNT are introduced into the life cycle of commercial products, their effects on human health and environment should be addressed. We demonstrated that pharyngeal aspiration of SWCNT elicited unusual pulmonary effects in C57BL/6 mice that combined a robust but(More)
Nanomaterials are frontier technological products used in different manufactured goods. Because of their unique physicochemical, electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are finding numerous applications in electronics, aerospace devices, computers, and chemical, polymer, and pharmaceutical industries. SWCNT are(More)
Diisocyanates are a common cause of occupational asthma, but risk factors are not well defined. A case-control study was conducted to investigate whether genetic variants of antioxidant defense genes, glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTM3, GSTP1), manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2), and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) are associated with(More)
Aluminum maltolate (Al-malt) causes neurodegeneration following in vivo exposure, and apoptosis plays a prominent role. The objective of this study was to define the form of cell death induced by Al-malt and to establish an in vitro model system amenable to mechanistic investigations of Al-malt-induced cell death. Neuro-2a cells, a murine neuroblastoma cell(More)
In the present study, we investigated the neurotoxicity of bisphenol A [BPA; 2,2-bis-(4 hydroxyphenyl) propane] and the underlying mechanisms of action in mouse hippocampal HT-22 cells. BPA, known to be a xenoestrogen, is used in the production of water bottles, cans, and teeth suture materials. BPA-treated HT-22 cells showed lower cell viability than did(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in macrophages. These molecules are involved in inflammation associated with endotoxic shock. Selenium (Se), a biologically essential trace element, modulates the functions of many regulatory proteins involved in signal transduction and affects a variety of cellular(More)
Exposure to ambient nanoparticles (defined as particulate matter [PM] having one dimension <100 nm) is associated with increased risk of childhood and adult asthma. Nanomaterials feature a smaller aerodynamic diameter and a higher surface area per unit mass ratio compared to fine or coarse-sized particles, resulting in greater lung deposition efficiency and(More)
Silymarin is a mixture of bioactive flavonoids isolated from the seeds and fruits of Milk Thistle [ Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner]. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to silymarin will modulate differentiation and cell selection in the thymus via alterations in gene expression. Male BALB/c mice were treated intraperitoneally once daily for five days(More)
Silymarin is a mixture of bioactive flavonoids isolated from Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum). Crude extracts from this plant have been used for centuries as a natural remedy and silymarin is now effectively used in the treatment of inflammatory liver toxicity and disease in humans. In vitro studies show that silymarin can inhibit the production and damage(More)
Selenium (Se) is an essential as well as a toxic trace element in animal and human nutrition. The immune system is a known target of Se intoxication. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of oral exposure to inorganic and organic forms of Se on the murine immune system and to compare the relative toxicity of the different(More)