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This randomized controlled trial with blinded assessment aimed to determine the effect of a 6-month minimally supervised exercise program on fall risk factors in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Forty-eight participants with PD who had fallen or were at risk of falling were randomized into exercise or control groups. The exercise group attended a(More)
Parkinson disease (PD) is a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder that affects about 1% of the population over the age of 55 years and has mean age of onset of about 60 years. The Braak hypothesis proposes that the earliest pathological evidence of PD is found in the enteric nervous system, medulla and olfactory bulb, and only subsequently progresses (over(More)
This report describes the consensus outcome of an international panel consisting of investigators with years of experience in this field that reviewed the definition and classification of dystonia. Agreement was obtained based on a consensus development methodology during 3 in-person meetings and manuscript review by mail. Dystonia is defined as a movement(More)
BACKGROUND Selective olfactory deficits occur in 70% to 90% of patients with Parkinson disease, independent of disease severity and duration. Olfactory testing may be a useful diagnostic aid for Parkinson disease, but the types of odors most commonly affected need to be identified. OBJECTIVE To determine the pattern and types of odors affected in(More)
This is the second neuropathological report detailing bilateral electrodes targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). The patient presented with unilateral tremor-dominant parkinsonism. Bilateral STN stimulation was carried out 7 years later due to significant disease progression and severe motor fluctuations. The(More)
A 42-year-old man presented with action-induced, stereotyped posturing of the left leg with task specificity following major traumatic brain injury less than a year earlier. Although adult onset primary leg dystonia is a recognised entity, our patient is unusual in that dystonia was an isolated abnormality without associated spasticity, was not preceded by(More)
Motor complications in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with long-term oral levodopa treatment and linked to pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation. L-dopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is delivered continuously by percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy tube (PEG-J), which reduces L-dopa-plasma-level fluctuations and can translate to reduced motor(More)
BACKGROUND Lacunar stroke accounts for a quarter of cases of acute ischaemic stroke; however, its underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. Our aim was to establish whether there is an association between changes in the retinal microvasculature and lacunar stroke that might provide clues to the pathology of cerebral small vessel disease. METHODS In this(More)
A patient with PD who exhibited disabling tremor and prominent dyskinesia underwent deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the left thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus. The electrode migrated and was replaced but with suboptimal clinical response. Two years later, postmortem analysis found the second electrode tip had entered the thalamic(More)
We describe 8 patients who presented with continuous, irregular movements occurring independently in individual fingers and, in some cases, toes, in the setting of mild dystonia present since early childhood and not associated with major disability. The finger movements varied from low-amplitude quivering or wriggling to larger amplitude movements in the(More)