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The surfaces of the infected erythrocyte (IE) and the merozoite, two developmental stages of malaria parasites, expose antigenic determinants to the host immune system. We report on surface-associated interspersed genes (surf genes), which encode a novel polymorphic protein family, SURFINs, present on both IEs and merozoites. A SURFIN expressed in 3D7(More)
Severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria is characterized by excessive sequestration of infected and uninfected erythrocytes in the microvasculature of the affected organ. Rosetting, the adhesion of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes to uninfected erythrocytes is a virulent parasite phenotype associated with the occurrence of severe malaria. Here we report on(More)
Erythrocytes infected with mature forms of Plasmodium falciparum do not circulate but are withdrawn from the peripheral circulation; they are bound to the endothelial lining and to uninfected erythrocytes in the microvasculature. Blockage of the blood flow, hampered oxygen delivery, and severe malaria may follow if binding is excessive. The NH(2)-terminal(More)
Waves of Malarial variations Minireview schizont-infected erythrocytes and surface reactive an-tibodies form clusters or agglutinates when they are Staffan Svä rd, and Per Hagblom mixed (SICA assay). In the human malaria parasite P. Microbiology and Tumor Biology Center falciparum, antigenic variation and switching has been Karolinska Institutet and(More)
Disease severity in Plasmodium falciparum infections is a direct consequence of the parasite's efficient evasion of the defense mechanisms of the human host. To date, one parasite-derived molecule, the antigenically variant adhesin P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), is known to be transported to the infected erythrocyte (pRBC) surface,(More)
The cerebral form of severe malaria is associated with excessive intravascular sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (PRBC). Retention and accumulation of PRBC may lead to occlusion of brain microvessels and direct the triggering of acute pathologic changes. Here we report that by selection, cloning, and subcloning, we have identified(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, or chronic kidney disease (CKD) usually require two or more antihypertensive agents to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. METHODS The efficacy/safety of olmesartan (OM) 40 mg, amlodipine besylate (AML) 10 mg, and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 25 mg versus the component(More)
The var gene family of Plasmodium falciparum encodes the clonally variant adhesin PfEMP1 present on the surface of infected erythrocytes. A poorly understood mechanism of allelic exclusion controls the expression of PfEMP1. Transcription of var genes is developmentally and, most likely, epigenetically regulated. Here we have studied the transcriptional(More)
This paper describes the implementation of a fast N-body algorithm for the study of multi-lament vor-tex simulations. The simulations involve distributions that are irregular and time-varying. We adapt our programming framework which was earlier used to develop high-performance implementations of the Barnes-Hut and Greengard-Rokhlin algorithms for(More)
The objective of this prespecified TRINITY study subgroup analysis was to assess the efficacy and safety of triple-combination treatment with olmesartan medoxomil (OM) 40 mg, amlodipine besylate (AML) 10 mg, and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 25 mg vs the component dual-combination treatments in obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m(2) ) and nonobese (BMI <30(More)