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Functions of carotid and aortic baroreflex control of heart rate (HR), cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of vascular resistance, adrenoreceptor responsiveness, indexes of baseline vagal and sympathetic tone, circulating blood volume, and venous compliance were compared in men and women to test the hypothesis that lower orthostatic tolerance in women would(More)
Higher oscillations of cerebral blood velocity and arterial pressure (AP) induced by breathing with inspiratory resistance are associated with delayed onset of symptoms and increased tolerance to central hypovolemia. We tested the hypothesis that subjects with high tolerance (HT) to central hypovolemia would display higher endogenous oscillations of(More)
Compromised cardiovascular performance, occurrence of serious cardiac dysrhythmias, cardiac atrophy, orthostatic intolerance, reduced aerobic capacity, operational impacts of regular physical exercise, and space radiation are risks of space flight to the cardiovascular system identified in the 2007 NASA Human Integrated Research Program. An evidence-based(More)
Hemorrhage is a leading cause of death in both civilian and battlefield trauma. Survival rates increase when victims requiring immediate intervention are correctly identified in a mass-casualty situation, but methods of prioritizing casualties based on current triage algorithms are severely limited. Development of effective procedures to predict the(More)
We tested the hypothesis that breathing through an inspiratory threshold device (ITD) during progressive central hypovolemia would protect cerebral perfusion and attenuate the reporting of presyncopal symptoms. Eight human subjects were exposed to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) until the presence of symptoms while breathing through either an active ITD(More)
We review the physiology and affects of inspiration through a low level of added resistance for the treatment of hypotension. Recent animal and clinical studies demonstrated that one of the body's natural response mechanisms to hypotension is to harness the respiratory pump to increase circulation. That finding is consistent with observations, in the 1960s,(More)
High tolerance to progressive reductions in central blood volume has been associated with higher heart rate (HR), peripheral vascular resistance (PVR), sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), and vagally mediated cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Using a database of 116 subjects classified as high tolerance to presyncopal-limited lower body negative pressure(More)
Twelve healthy men underwent measurement of their carotid-cardiac baroreflex response during varying conditions of vestibulo-oculomotor stimulation to test the hypothesis that vestibular and/or oculomotor stimulation associated with head movements in the yaw plane inhibit baroreflex control of heart rate. We assessed the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response(More)
BACKGROUND Hemorrhagic shock is a leading cause of death in both civilian and battlefield trauma. Currently available medical monitors provide measures of standard vital signs that are insensitive and nonspecific. More important, hypotension and other signs and symptoms of shock can appear when it may be too late to apply effective life-saving(More)
We measured various hemodynamic responses and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in human subjects during a graded lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) protocol to test the hypotheses that: (1) reduced stroke volume (SV) is linearly related to increased MSNA; and (2) the onset of symptoms of impending cardiovascular collapse is associated with(More)