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Functions of carotid and aortic baroreflex control of heart rate (HR), cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of vascular resistance, adrenoreceptor responsiveness, indexes of baseline vagal and sympathetic tone, circulating blood volume, and venous compliance were compared in men and women to test the hypothesis that lower orthostatic tolerance in women would(More)
This paper reviews the influence of several perturbations (physical exercise, heat stress, terrestrial altitude, microgravity, and trauma/sickness) on adaptations of blood volume (BV), erythrocyte volume (EV), and plasma volume (PV). Exercise training can induce BV expansion: PV expansion usually occurs immediately, but EV expansion takes weeks. EV and PV(More)
Activation of sympathetic efferent traffic is essential to maintaining adequate arterial pressures during reductions of central blood volume. Sympathetic baroreflex gain may be reduced, and muscle sympathetic firing characteristics altered with head-up tilt just before presyncope in humans. Volume redistributions with lower body negative pressure (LBNP) are(More)
The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that peripheral vasoconstriction and orthostatic tolerance are associated with increased circulating plasma concentrations of noradrenaline, vasopressin and renin-angiotensin. Sixteen men were categorized as having high (HT, n=9) or low (LT, n=7) tolerance to lower body negative pressure (LBNP)(More)
INTRODUCTION Hemorrhage is accompanied by baroreflex-mediated tachycardia and vasoconstriction. The difference between baseline and maximum responses is defined as the heart rate (HR) and vasoconstrictor 'reserve'. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that higher HR and vasoconstrictor reserves in subjects with high tolerance (HT) to central hypovolemia is(More)
Cardiovascular responses during a graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) protocol were compared before and after atropine and propranolol administration to test the hypothesis that both sympathetic and parasympathetic control of cardio-acceleration are associated with syncopal predisposition to orthostatic stress in healthy subjects. Eleven men were(More)
We tested the hypothesis that one bout of maximal exercise performed at the conclusion of prolonged simulated microgravity would improve blood pressure stability during an orthostatic challenge. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), arginine vasopressin (AVP), plasma renin activity (PRA), atrial(More)
We studied vagally mediated carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflexes in 11 healthy men before, during, and after 30 days of 6 degrees head-down bed rest to test the hypothesis that baroreflex malfunction contributes to orthostatic hypotension in this model of simulated microgravity. Sigmoidal baroreflex response relationships were provoked with ramped neck(More)
In cross-sectional comparisons, several investigators have reported highly trained endurance athletes to have a prevalence toward orthostatic hypotension and intolerance compared with average fit individuals. These observations have raised concern that regular exercise designed to increase aerobic capacity may impair regulatory mechanisms of blood pressure(More)
Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) has been extensively used for decades in aerospace physiological research as a tool to investigate cardiovascular mechanisms that are associated with or underlie performance in aerospace and military environments. In comparison with clinical stand and tilt tests, LBNP represents a relatively safe methodology for inducing(More)