Victor Barreto-de-Souza

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Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania frequently occur as opportunistic pathogens in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals, but the mechanisms underlying protozoan growth in this context are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the HIV-1 Tat protein drives Leishmania replication in primary human macrophages. We found(More)
The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and infectious diseases, however its role in HIV-1 infection is unknown. Here we show that HIV-1-infected patients present elevated plasma levels of MIF, that HIV-1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) release a greater amount of MIF, and(More)
An in vitro priming system of murine naive splenocytes was established to investigate early immune responses to Leishmania chagasi, the agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World. Priming of splenocytes from resistant C3H and CBA or susceptible BALB and B10 mice with L. chagasi resulted in blast transformation and in proliferating parasite-specific(More)
Infection of BALB/c mice with Leishmania chagasi results in progressive increase of parasite burden in spleen, in spite of extensive T cell activation in situ. Explanted splenic CD4+ T cells showed decreased proliferation to anti-CD3, compared with controls, and no response to L. chagasi recombinant antigen Lcr1. Blockade of the negative costimulatory(More)
Macrophages infected with HIV-1 sustain viral replication for long periods of time, functioning as viral reservoirs. Therefore, recognition of factors that maintain macrophage survival and influence HIV-1 replication is critical to understanding the mechanisms that regulate the HIV-1-replicative cycle. Because HIV-1-infected macrophages release the nerve(More)
Recent studies indicate important roles for CTLA-4 engagement in T cells, and for TGF-beta production in the immunopathogenesis of murine kalaazar or visceral leishmaniasis, but a functional link between these two pathways in helping intracellular parasite growth is unknown. Here we report that Ag or anti-CD3 activation of splenic CD4+ T cells from visceral(More)
Monoxenic trypanosomatids, which usually are non-pathogenic in humans, have been detected in AIDS patients, but the mechanisms underlying the establishment of these protozoa in HIV-1-infected individuals are poorly understood. Here we addressed the role of HIV-1 and the HIV-1 Tat protein in the replication of the monoxenic trypanosomatid Blastocrithidia(More)
The protozoan parasite Leishmania infects and replicates in macrophages, causing a spectrum of diseases in the human host, varying from cutaneous to visceral clinical forms. It is known that cytokines modulate the immunological response against Leishmania and are relevant for infection resolution. Here, we report that Interleukin (IL)-27 increases(More)
The evolution of Leishmania infection depends on the balance between microbicidal and suppressor macrophage functions. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase R (PKR), a classic antiviral protein, is able to regulate a number of signaling pathways and macrophage functions. We investigated the possible role of PKR in the modulation of Leishmania(More)
Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages increases secretion of soluble mediators and generates an antiinflammatory environment. We previously reported that phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by HIV-1-infected macrophages enhances viral replication, with the participation of the cytokine transforming growth factor- beta1 and an integrin receptor. Now, we(More)