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In recent years, a tremendous effort has been devoted to the detailed characterization of the phenotype and function of distinct T cell subpopulations in humans, as well as to their pathway(s) of differentiation and role in immune responses. But these studies seem to have generated more questions than definitive answers. To clarify issues related to the(More)
The viruses HIV-1, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are characterized by the establishment of lifelong infection in the human host, where their replication is thought to be tightly controlled by virus-specific CD8+ T cells. Here we present detailed studies of the differentiation phenotype of these cells, which can(More)
Thorough research on HIV is progressively enabling us to understand the intricate mechanisms that link HIV-1 infection to the onset of immunodeficiency. The infection and depletion of CD4(+) T cells represent the most fundamental events in HIV-1 infection. However, in recent years, the role played by chronic immune activation and inflammation in HIV(More)
Understanding the lineage differentiation of memory T cells is a central question in immunology. We investigated this issue by analysing the expression of the chemokine receptor CCR7, which defines distinct subsets of naive and memory T lymphocytes with different homing and effector capacities and antiviral immune responses to HIV and cytomegalovirus. Ex(More)
The key attributes of CD8+ T cell protective immunity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remain unclear. We report that CD8+ T cell responses specific for Gag and, in particular, the immunodominant p24 epitope KK10 correlate with control of HIV-1 replication in human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 patients. To understand further(More)
Progress in the fight against the HIV/AIDS epidemic is hindered by our failure to elucidate the precise reasons for the onset of immunodeficiency in HIV-1 infection. Increasing evidence suggests that elevated immune activation is associated with poor outcome in HIV-1 pathogenesis. However, the basis of this association remains unclear. Through ex vivo(More)
The cytotoxic potential of CD8(+) T cells and NK cells plays a crucial role in the immune response to pathogens. Although in vitro studies have reported that CD4(+) T cells are also able to mediate perforin-mediated killing, the in vivo existence and relevance of cytotoxic CD4(+) T cells have been the subject of debate. Here we show that a population of(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is largely asymptomatic in the immunocompetent host, but remains a major cause of morbidity in immunosuppressed individuals. Using the recently described technique of staining antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells with peptide-HLA tetrameric complexes, we have demonstrated high levels of antigen-specific cells specific for(More)
While the thymus is known to be essential for the initial production of T cells during early life, its contribution to immune development remains a matter of debate. In fact, during cardiac surgery in newborns, the thymus is completely resected to enable better access to the heart to correct congenital heart defects, suggesting that it may be dispensable(More)
Much effort has been devoted to the design of vaccines that induce adaptive cellular immunity, in particular CD8+ T cells, which have a central role in the host response to viral infections and cancers. To date, however, the development of effective T cell vaccines remains elusive. This is due, in part, to the lack of clearly defined correlates of(More)