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A policy describes the conditions under which an action is permitted or forbidden. We show that a fragment of (multi-sorted) first-order logic can be used to represent and reason about policies. Because we use first-order logic, policies have a clear syntax and semantics. We show that further restricting the fragment results in a language that is still(More)
XrML is becoming a popular language in industry for writing software licenses. The semantics for XrML is implicitly given by an algorithm that determines if a permission follows from a set of licenses. We focus on a fragment of the language and use it to highlight some problematic aspects of the algorithm. We then correct the problems, introduce formal(More)
ODRL is a popular XML-based language for stating the conditions under which resources can be accessed legitimately. The language is described in English and, as a result, agreements written in ODRL are open to interpretation. To address this problem, we propose a formal semantics for a representative fragment of the language. We use this semantics to(More)
algorithmics, noting that the simple and easily applicable methods are most often used due to lower economic and cognitive costs. I'd like to see this expanded as it's extremely important in practice. It's nice to get a brief description in 7.6 of DNA and quantum computing, that accurately states their potential and limitations. In 7.6.3, perhaps the author(More)
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