Vicky J Coalter

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Transient antiretroviral treatment with tenofovir, (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine, begun shortly after inoculation of rhesus macaques with the highly pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolate SIVsmE660, facilitated the development of SIV-specific lymphoproliferative responses and sustained effective control of the infection following(More)
To better understand the viral and host factors involved in the establishment of persistent productive infection by primate lentiviruses, we varied the time of initiation and duration of postinoculation antiretroviral treatment with tenofovir (9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine) while performing intensive virologic and immunologic monitoring in(More)
The lack of a primate model that utilizes HIV-1 as the challenge virus is an impediment to AIDS research; existing models generally employ simian viruses that are divergent from HIV-1, reducing their usefulness in preclinical investigations. Based on an understanding of species-specific variation in primate TRIM5 and APOBEC3 antiretroviral genes, we(More)
A novel, general approach to chemical inactivation of retroviruses was used to produce inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) particles with functional envelope glycoproteins. Inactivated virions of three different virus isolates (SIVmne E11S, SIVmac239, and SIVmac239 g4,5), prepared by treatment with 2,2'-dithiodipyridine (aldrithol-2, AT-2), were(More)
A novel type of whole inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) virion vaccine immunogen with functional envelope glycoproteins was evaluated, without adjuvant, in rhesus macaques. Immunogens included purified inactivated virions of SIVmac239, a designed mutant of SIVmac239 with gp120 carbohydrate attachment sites deleted (SIVmac239 g4,5), and(More)
Even with prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART), many human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals have <500 CD4(+) T cells/µL, and CD4(+) T cells in lymphoid tissues remain severely depleted, due in part to fibrosis of the paracortical T-cell zone (TZ) that impairs homeostatic mechanisms required for T-cell survival. We therefore used antifibrotic(More)
Although the study of non-human primates has resulted in important advances for understanding HIV-specific immunity, a clear correlate of immune control over simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication has not been found to date. In this study, CD8(+) T-cell cytotoxic capacity was examined to determine whether this function is a correlate of immune(More)
To establish long-term, antigen-specific T-cell lines and clones, we selectively immortalized antigen-responsive T cells from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs were stimulated with either alloantigen or soluble antigen, then infected with a murine leukemia virus-based retroviral vector carrying an immortalizing gene, either the Tax(More)
Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) can suppress HIV-1 replication sufficiently to eliminate measurable plasma viremia, infected cells remain and ensure viral recrudescence after discontinuation of ART. We used a macaque model of HIV-1/AIDS to evaluate the location of infected cells during ART. Twelve macaques were infected with RT-SHIVmne, a SIV(More)
Replication-competent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists in infected people despite suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), and it represents a major obstacle to HIV functional cure or eradication. We have developed a model of cART-mediated viral suppression in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac239-infected Indian rhesus(More)