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Gene silencing is an important but little understood regulatory mechanism in plants. Here we report that a viral sequence, initially identified as a mediator of synergistic viral disease, acts to suppress the establishment of both transgene-induced and virus-induced posttranscriptional gene silencing. The viral suppressor of silencing comprises the(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in animals and plants. Comparative genomic computational methods have been developed to predict new miRNAs in worms, flies, and humans. Here, we present a novel single genome approach for the detection of miRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana. This was initiated by producing a candidate(More)
To address the role of small regulatory RNAs in rice development, we generated a large data set of small RNAs from mature leaves and developing roots, shoots, and inflorescences. Using a spatial clustering algorithm, we identified 36,780 genomic groups of small RNAs. Most consisted of 24-nt RNAs that are expressed in all four tissues and enriched in repeat(More)
RNA silencing is a remarkable type of gene regulation based on sequence-specific targeting and degradation of RNA. The term encompasses related pathways found in a broad range of eukaryotic organisms, including fungi, plants, and animals. In plants, it serves as an antiviral defense, and many plant viruses encode suppressors of silencing. The emerging view(More)
Posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is an ancient eukaryotic regulatory mechanism in which a particular RNA sequence is targeted and destroyed. The helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of plant potyviruses suppresses PTGS in plants. Using a yeast two-hybrid system, we identified a calmodulin-related protein (termed rgs-CaM) that interacts with HC-Pro.(More)
Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a sequence-specific RNA degradation mechanism that is widespread in eukaryotic organisms. It is often associated with methylation of the transcribed region of the silenced gene and with accumulation of small RNAs (21 to 25 nucleotides) homologous to the silenced gene. In plants, PTGS can be triggered locally and(More)
Viroids and most viral satellites have small, noncoding, and highly structured RNA genomes. How they cause disease symptoms without encoding proteins and why they have characteristic secondary structures are two longstanding questions. Recent studies have shown that both viroids and satellites are capable of inducing RNA silencing, suggesting a possible(More)
Two major classes of small noncoding RNAs have emerged as important regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes, the short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) associated with RNA silencing and endogenous micro-RNAs (miRNAs) implicated in regulation of gene expression. Helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) is a viral protein that blocks RNA silencing in plants. Here we(More)
Despite the widespread use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to transfer genes into plant systems, host responses to this plant pathogen are not well understood. The present study shows that disarmed strains of Agrobacterium induce distinct host responses when infiltrated into leaves of Nicotiana tabacum. The responses are limited to the infiltrated zone and(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of a pepper mottle virus isolate from California (PepMoV C) has been determined from cloned viral cDNAs. The PepMoV C genomic RNA is 9640 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail and contains a long open reading frame starting at nucleotide 168 and potentially encoding a polyprotein of 3068 amino acids. Comparison of the(More)