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To address the role of small regulatory RNAs in rice development, we generated a large data set of small RNAs from mature leaves and developing roots, shoots, and inflorescences. Using a spatial clustering algorithm, we identified 36,780 genomic groups of small RNAs. Most consisted of 24-nt RNAs that are expressed in all four tissues and enriched in repeat(More)
Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a sequence-specific RNA degradation mechanism that is widespread in eukaryotic organisms. It is often associated with methylation of the transcribed region of the silenced gene and with accumulation of small RNAs (21 to 25 nucleotides) homologous to the silenced gene. In plants, PTGS can be triggered locally and(More)
Dicer-like (DCL) enzymes play a pivotal role in RNA silencing in plants, processing the long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that triggers silencing into the primary short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that mediate it. The siRNA population can be augmented and silencing amplified via transitivity, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR)-dependent pathway that uses(More)
Posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is an ancient eukaryotic regulatory mechanism in which a particular RNA sequence is targeted and destroyed. The helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of plant potyviruses suppresses PTGS in plants. Using a yeast two-hybrid system, we identified a calmodulin-related protein (termed rgs-CaM) that interacts with HC-Pro.(More)
Two major classes of small noncoding RNAs have emerged as important regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes, the short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) associated with RNA silencing and endogenous micro-RNAs (miRNAs) implicated in regulation of gene expression. Helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) is a viral protein that blocks RNA silencing in plants. Here we(More)
RNA silencing is an ancient eukaryotic pathway in which double stranded RNA (dsRNA) triggers destruction of related RNAs in the cell. Early studies in plants pointed to a role for this pathway as a defense against viruses. Most known plant viruses have RNA genomes and replicate via dsRNA intermediates, thereby serving as potent inducers of RNA silencing(More)
Plant small RNAs (smRNAs), which include microRNAs (miRNAs), short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and trans-acting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs), are emerging as significant components of epigenetic processes and of gene networks involved in development and in homeostasis. Here we present a bioinformatics resource for cereal crops, the Cereal Small RNA Database (CSRDB),(More)
RNA silencing is a highly conserved pathway in the network of interconnected defense responses that are activated during viral infection. As a counter-defense, many plant viruses encode proteins that block silencing, often also interfering with endogenous small RNA pathways. However, the mechanism of action of viral suppressors is not well understood and(More)
Dear Editor, MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play a critical role in regulation of gene expression in nearly all eukaryotic organisms, including mammals. In humans, an estimated 60% of all protein-coding genes are targeted by miRNAs, affecting virtually every physiological process in the body [1]. In addition, a diverse array of human(More)