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The purpose of this paper is to describe a framework for evaluating image segmentation algorithms. Image segmentation consists of object recognition and delineation. For evaluating segmentation methods, three factors-precision (reliability), accuracy (validity), and efficiency (viability)-need to be considered for both recognition and delineation. To assess(More)
OBJECTIVE Previous research has revealed a pedagogical benefit of instructing novice diagnosticians to utilise a combined approach to clinical reasoning (familiarity-driven pattern recognition combined with a careful consideration of the presenting features) when diagnosing electrocardiograms (ECGs). This paper reports 2 studies demonstrating that the(More)
BACKGROUND Computer-based video training (CBVT) provides flexible opportunities for surgical trainees to learn fundamental technical skills, but may be ineffective in self-directed practice settings because of poor trainee self-assessment. This study examined whether CBVT is effective in a self-directed learning environment among novice trainees. METHODS(More)
A significant proportion of physicians and medical trainees experience stress-related anxiety and burnout resulting in increased absenteeism and disability, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased rates of medical errors. A review and meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at addressing stress, anxiety, and(More)
BACKGROUND Simulation-based training is useful in improving physicians' skills. However, no randomized controlled trials have been able to demonstrate the effects of simulation teaching in real-life patient care. This study aimed to determine whether simulation-based training or an interactive seminar resulted in better patient care during weaning from(More)
PURPOSE This paper is a review of representative research on the impact of acute stressors on the clinical performance of individuals and teams. METHOD The Sciences Citation Index, Medline, and Psychinfo were used to search for articles up to and including 2008. The search terms were stress/tension/arousal/anxiety/cortisol/threat,(More)
This study compared virtual reality simulator-enhanced training with laboratory-only practice on the development of dental technical skills. Sixty-eight students were randomly assigned to practice their skills in either a traditional preclinical dentistry laboratory or in combination with a virtual reality simulator. The results indicate that students who(More)
BACKGROUND Age-related deterioration in both cognitive function and the capacity to control fine motor movements has been demonstrated in numerous studies. However, this decline has not been described with respect to complex clinical anesthesia skills. Cricothyroidotomy is an example of a complex, lifesaving procedure that requires competency in the domains(More)
BACKGROUND We carried out a prospective, randomized, 4-arm study including control arm, blinding of examiners to determine effectiveness of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) and different types of expert feedback (concurrent and summary) on learning of a basic technical skill. METHODS Using bench models, participants were pre-tested on a suturing(More)
PURPOSE Within the field of anesthesia, simulation has been used as a tool for training and assessment for over 30 years. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the state of the science in terms of its effectiveness as an approach to both training and assessment in anesthesia. Articles in the area of simulation and anesthesia published up to and(More)