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A novel swine influenza virus, H1N2, circulates in European swine populations together with H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. This study examines whether post-infection immunity to H1N1 and/or H3N2 viruses provides cross-protection against H1N2 infection. Pigs (n=51) were inoculated intranasally with either Sw/Belgium/1/98 (H1N1) or Sw/Flanders/1/98 (H3N2), or with(More)
Human cases of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A H1N1 virus emerging in 2007-2008 in Luxembourg were not associated with treatment, prophylaxis or stockpiling of oseltamivir. Following initial local seeding, oseltamivir-resistant strains spread synchronously to sensitive strains causing a similar epidemiology and clinical symptoms.
PURPOSE The development of antiviral resistance is a recognized challenge to successful treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), but it has been difficult to establish an accurate estimate of its incidence due to a number of factors: (a) lack of an accepted definition of antiviral resistance; (b) lack of a standardized assay to assess resistance; and (c)(More)
Influenza-positive specimens with collection dates since 1 September 2013 (with week 40, the start of weekly monitoring of influenza activity for the 2013–14 influenza season, commencing on 30 September 2013) were received from six countries in the EU/EEA region at the A summary of specimens received is shown in Table 1, with characterisation of all(More)
INTRODUCTION Libraries of the 21 s t century are very different places from those that existed at the beginning of the 20 t h century, and very different as well from the libraries of only 25 years ago. Library education has striven to keep pace with all the myriads of changes. Within the last 100 years, fortunately and necessarily in order to retain its(More)
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