Vicente Planelles

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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) persists in a latent state within resting CD4+ T cells of infected persons treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This reservoir must be eliminated for the clearance of infection. Using a cDNA library screen, we have identified methyl-CpG binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) as a regulator of HIV-1(More)
The use of antiretroviral therapy in HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients does not lead to virus eradication. This is due, to a significant degree, to the fact that HIV-1 can establish a highly stable reservoir of latently infected cells. In this work, we describe an ex vivo experimental system that generates high levels of HIV-1 latently infected memory(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protein Vpr (viral protein R) arrests cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, a process that requires activation of the ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related) pathway. In this study we demonstrate that the expression of Vpr does not cause DNA double-strand breaks but rather induces ATR activation, as(More)
Natural killer (NK) cell degranulation in response to virus-infected cells is triggered by interactions between invariant NK cell surface receptors and their ligands on target cells. Although HIV-1 Vpr induces expression of ligands for NK cell activation receptor, NKG2D, on infected cells, this is not sufficient to promote lytic granule release. We show(More)
DNA damage is a universal inducer of cell cycle arrest at the G2 phase. Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) also blocks cellular proliferation at the G2 phase. The HIV-1 accessory gene vpr encodes a conserved 96-amino acid protein (Vpr) that is necessary and sufficient for the HIV-1-induced block of cellular proliferation. In the(More)
HIV-1 Vpr is a viral accessory protein that activates ATR through the induction of DNA replication stress. ATR activation results in cell cycle arrest in G2 and induction of apoptosis. In the present study, we investigate the role of the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) in the above activity of Vpr. We report that the general function of the UPS is(More)
The therapeutic potential of pharmacologic inhibition of bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins has recently emerged in hematological malignancies and chronic inflammation. We find that BET inhibitor compounds (JQ1, I-Bet, I-Bet151 and MS417) reactivate HIV from latency. This is evident in polyclonal Jurkat cell populations containing latent(More)
Homeostatic proliferation ensures the longevity of central memory T-cells by inducing cell proliferation in the absence of cellular differentiation or activation. This process is governed mainly by IL-7. Central memory T-cells can also be stimulated via engagement of the T-cell receptor, leading to cell proliferation but also activation and differentiation.(More)
Eukaryotic cells have evolved a complex mechanism for sensing DNA damage during genome replication. Activation of this pathway prevents entry into mitosis to allow for either DNA repair or, in the event of irreparable damage, commitment to apoptosis. Under conditions of replication stress, the damage signal is initiated by the ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) accessory gene vpr encodes a conserved 96-amino-acid protein that is necessary and sufficient for the HIV-1-induced block of cellular proliferation. Expression of vpr in CD4+ lymphocytes results in G2 arrest, followed by apoptosis. In a previous study, we identified the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and(More)